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An Islamic, rather than secular, government was also unpopular in most places. Forgotten your password? Want an ad-free experience? Classism also establishes rules about whether and under what circumstances members of one class may cross over into another class—for example, via marriage or work.
Racism acts on this belief with political, systemic, social, and institutional power. Power is necessary to operationalize racism. Without it, beliefs of genetic inferiority are simply prejudice. Racism has prevailed throughout human history as a justification for a host of oppressive actions. Colorism is a social pattern in which people are treated differently based on the amount of visible melanin in the skin.
A number of studies show that lighter-skinned Black Americans or Latinos receive preferential treatment over their darker-skinned counterparts. Colorism is not the same thing as racism, but the two tend to go together. Ableism is a social pattern in which people who are disabled are treated differently, to an unnecessary degree, than those who are not. This could take the form of either not accommodating those with physical or mental disabilities or treating them as if they are unable to live without assistance.
Standards of beauty vary from culture to culture, but just about every human society has them. Sizeism or fatphobia is a social pattern in which people whose bodies fit social ideals are treated differently from people whose bodies do not.
In contemporary Western society, people with a slender build are generally considered more attractive than people who are heavy. The first, primary form of racial oppression— genocide and geographical displacement —in the US context refers to Western Europe and settlers taking over an Indigenous population's land.
Many Indigenous people, commonly known today as Native Americans , were relocated to Indian Reservations or killed during wars which were fought over possession of their land. The second form of racial oppression, slavery , refers to Africans being taken from their homeland and sold as property to white Americans.
Racial oppression was a significant part of daily life in which African-Americans routinely worked on plantations and performed other forms of labor without pay or freedom to leave their workplaces.
The third form of racial oppression, second-class citizenship , refers to some categories of citizens having fewer rights than others. Second-class citizenship became a pivotal form of racial oppression in the United States following the Civil War , as African-Americans who were formerly enslaved continued to be considered unequal to white citizens, and had no voting rights. Moreover, immigrants and foreign workers in the US are also treated like second-class citizens, with fewer rights than people born in the US.
The fourth form of racial oppression in American history, non-citizen labor, refers to the linkage of race and legal citizenship status. During the middle of the 19th century, some categories of immigrants, such as Mexicans and Chinese, were sought as physical laborers, but were nonetheless denied legal access to citizenship status.
The last form of racial oppression in American history is diffuse discrimination. This form of racial oppression refers to discriminatory actions that are not directly backed by the legal powers of the state, but take place in widespread everyday social interactions.
This can include employers not hiring or promoting someone on the basis of race, landlords only renting to people of certain racial groups, salespeople treating customers differently based on race, and racialized groups having access only to impoverished schools.
Even after the civil rights legislation abolished segregation, racial oppression is still a reality in the United States. According to Robert Blauner, author of Racial Oppression in America , "racial groups and racial oppression are central features of the American social dynamic". Class oppression, sometimes referred to as classism, can be defined as prejudice and discrimination based on social class.
A class is a large group of people who share similar economic or social positions based on their income, wealth, property ownership, job status, education, skills, and power in the economic and political sphere. The most commonly used class categories include: upper class, middle class, working class, and poor class. A majority of people in the United States self-identify in surveys as middle class, despite vast differences in income and status.
Class is also experienced differently depending on race, gender, ethnicity, global location, disability, and more. Class oppression of the poor and working class can lead to deprivation of basic needs and a feeling of inferiority to higher-class people, as well as shame towards one's traditional class, race, gender, or ethnic heritage.
In the United States, class has become racialized leaving the greater percentage of people of color living in poverty. Gender oppression is carried out through gender norms society has adopted. In some cultures today, gender norms suggest that masculinity and femininity are opposite genders, however it is an unequal binary pair, with masculinity being dominant and femininity being subordinate. In current society, sources like the media further impose gendered oppression as they shape societal views.
Females in pop-culture are objectified and sexualized, which can be understood as degrading to women by depicting them as sex objects with little regard for their character, political views, cultural contributions, creativity or intellect.
Some argue that feminism, or struggles for women's cultural, political and economic equality, has challenged gender oppression. Others, such as Christina Hoff Sommers and Camille Paglia, argue that modern "fourth wave" feminism is holding women back by cementing them in a culture of victimization.
Dominant societal views with respect to sexuality, and sex partner selection, have formed a sexuality hierarchy oppressing people who do not conform to heteronormativity. Heteronormativity is an underlying assumption that everyone in society is heterosexual, and those who are not are treated as different or even abnormal by society, excluded, oppressed, and sometimes subject to violence. Heterosexism also derives from societal views of the nuclear family which is presumed to be heterosexual, and dominated or controlled by the male partner.
Social actions by oppressed groups such as LGBT movements have organized to create social change. Religious persecution is the systematic mistreatment of individuals because of their religious beliefs. An example of religious powerlessness existed during the 17th century when the Pilgrims , who wanted to escape the rule of the Church of England came to what is now called the United States.
The pilgrims created their own religion which was another form of Protestantism , and after doing so they eventually passed laws in order to prevent other religions from prospering in their colony. The Pilgrims and the leaders of other communities where Protestants were in the majority used their power over legislatures to oppress followers of other religions in the United States.
The definition of exploitation is the action or fact of treating someone unfairly in order to benefit from their work. During this time it was common for the Chinese immigrants to follow the religions of Buddhism , Taoism , and Confucianism , because of this the Chinese were considered different and therefore not equal to white Americans.
Due to this view Chinese workers were denied equal pay, and they also suffered many hardships during the time which they spent working on the railroad. According to the Merriam Webster's dictionary, violence is "the use of physical force so as to injure, abuse, damage, or destroy". Acts of religious violence which are committed against people who practice a particular religion are classified as hate crimes.
Since September 11th, the number of hate crimes which have been committed against Muslims in the United States has greatly increased. One such incident occurred on August 5, when three men bombed a Mosque because they felt that Muslims "'push their beliefs on everyone else'". Addressing social oppression on both a macro and micro level, feminist Patricia Hill Collins discusses her " matrix of domination ".
Each of these spheres works to sustain current inequalities that are faced by marginalized, excluded or oppressed groups. The structural, disciplinary and hegemonic domains all operate on a macro level, creating social oppression through macro structures such as education, or the criminal justice system, which play out in the interpersonal sphere of everyday life through micro-oppressions.
Standpoint theory can help us to understand the interpersonal domain. Standpoint theory deals with an individual's social location in that each person will have a very different perspective based on where they are positioned in society. For instance, a white male living in America will have a very different take on an issue such as abortion than a black female living in Africa.
Each will have different knowledge claims and experiences that will have shaped how they perceive abortion. Standpoint theory is often used to expose the powerful social locations of those speaking, to justify claims of knowledge through closer experience of an issue, and to deconstruct the construction of knowledge of oppression by oppressors.
If oppressive consequences accrue to institutional laws, customs, or practices, the institution is oppressive whether or not the individuals maintaining those practices have oppressive intentions. Institutionalized oppression allows for government, religious and business organizations and their employees to systematically favor specific groups of people based upon group identity.
Dating back to colonization, the United States implemented the annihilation of Native Americans from lands that Euro-Americans wanted, and condoned the institution of slavery where Africans were brought to the ' New World ' to be a source of free labor to expand the cotton and tobacco industry.
Although the thirteenth, fourteenth, and fifteenth amendments freed African Americans, gave them citizenship, and provided them the right to vote, institutions such as some police departments continue to use oppressive systems against minorities. They train their officers to profile individuals based upon their racial heritage, and to exert excessive force to restrain them. Racial profiling and police brutality are "employed to control a population thought to be undesirable, undeserving, and under punished by established law".
Institutionalized oppression is not only experienced by people of racial minorities, but can also affect those in the LGBT community. Oppression of the LGBT community in the United States dates back to President Eisenhower's presidency where he passed Executive Order in April which permitted non-binary sexual behaviors to be investigated by federal agencies. Oppression of the LGBT community continues today through some religious systems and their believers' justifications of discrimination based upon their own freedom of religious belief.
States such as Arizona and Kansas passed laws in giving religious-based businesses "the right to refuse service to LGBT customers". The term economic oppression changes in meaning and significance over time, depending on its contextual application. In today's context, economic oppression may take several forms, including, but not limited to: serfdom , forced labour , low wages, denial of equal opportunity , bonded labour , practicing employment discrimination, and economic discrimination based on sex, nationality, race, and religion.
Ann Cudd describes the main forces of economic oppression as oppressive economic systems and direct and indirect forces. Even though capitalism and socialism are not inherently oppressive, they "lend themselves to oppression in characteristic ways". This allows for a dominant social group to maintain and maximize its wealth through the intentional exploitation of economically inferior subordinates.
With indirect forces also known as oppression by choice , "the oppressed are co-opted into making individual choices that add to their own oppression". The oppressed are faced with having to decide to go against their social good, and even against their own good.
If they choose otherwise, they have to choose against their interests, which may lead to resentment by their group. An example of direct forces of economic oppression is employment discrimination in the form of the gender pay gap. Restrictions on women's access to and participation in the workforce like the wage gap is an "inequality most identified with industrialized nations with nominal equal opportunity laws; legal and cultural restrictions on access to education and jobs, inequities most identified with developing nations; and unequal access to capital, variable but identified as a difficulty in both industrialized and developing nations".
Women, in contrast, are still expected to fulfill the caretaker role and take time off for domestic needs such as pregnancy and ill family members, preventing them from conforming to the "ideal-worker norm". With the current norm in place, women are forced to juggle full-time jobs and family care at home.
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