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Easin' It 4. Blue On Blue 5. Peppermint Pipes 6. Good Time Blues 7. Meeting Time 8. Counter Block 9. Let's Have A Taste Swinging At The Waldorf Vine Street Rumble Quince Big bands started as accompaniment for dancing. In contrast to the typical jazz emphasis on improvisation, big bands relied on written compositions and arrangements.
They gave a greater role to bandleaders, arrangers, and sections of instruments rather than soloists. Big bands have four sections: trumpets, trombones, saxophones, and a rhythm section of guitar, piano, double bass, and drums.
Guitar replaced the banjo , and double bass replaced the tuba. In the s, Stan Kenton 's band and Woody Herman 's band used up to five trumpets, four trombones three tenor , one bass trombone , five saxophones two alto saxophones , two tenor saxophones , one baritone saxophone , and a rhythm section.
An exception is Duke Ellington, who at one time used six trumpets. While most big bands dropped the previously common jazz clarinet from their arrangements other than the clarinet-led orchestras of Artie Shaw and Benny Goodman , many Duke Ellington songs had clarinet parts, often replacing or doubling one of the tenor saxophone parts; more rarely, Ellington would substitute baritone sax for bass clarinet, such as in "Ase's Death" from Swinging Suites.
Boyd Raeburn drew from symphony orchestras by adding flute, French horn , violin, and timpani to his band. Twenty-first century big bands can be considerably larger than their predecessors, exceeding 20 players, with some European bands using 29 instruments and some reaching Typical big band arrangements from the swing era were written in strophic form with the same phrase and chord structure repeated several times. The first chorus of an arrangement introduces the melody and is followed by choruses of development.
This development may take the form of improvised solos, written solo sections, and " shout choruses ". An arrangement's first chorus is sometimes preceded by an introduction, which may be as short as a few measures or may extend to chorus of its own. Many arrangements contain an interlude, often similar in content to the introduction, inserted between some or all choruses.
Other methods of embellishing the form include modulations and cadential extensions. Some big ensembles, like King Oliver 's, played music that was half-arranged, half-improvised, often relying on head arrangements. A head arrangement is a piece of music that is formed by band members during rehearsal.
Before , social dance in America was dominated by steps such as the waltz and polka. As jazz migrated from its New Orleans origin to Chicago and New York City, energetic, suggestive dances traveled with it.
During the next decades, ballrooms filled with people doing the jitterbug and Lindy Hop. One of the first bands to accompany the new rhythms was led by a drummer, Art Hickman , in San Francisco in This intermingling of sections became a defining characteristic of big bands. Whiteman was educated in classical music, and he called his new band's music symphonic jazz.
The methods of dance bands marked a step away from New Orleans jazz. With the exception of Jelly Roll Morton , who continued playing in the New Orleans style, bandleaders paid attention to the demand for dance music and created their own big bands. Duke Ellington led his band at the Cotton Club in Harlem.
Fletcher Henderson 's career started when he was persuaded to audition for a job at Club Alabam in New York City, which eventually turned into a job as bandleader at the Roseland Ballroom. At these venues, which themselves gained notoriety, bandleaders and arrangers played a greater role than they had before.
Henderson and arranger Don Redman followed the template of King Oliver , but as the s progressed they moved away from the New Orleans format and transformed jazz. They were assisted by a band full of talent: Coleman Hawkins on tenor saxophone, Louis Armstrong on cornet, and multi-instrumentalist Benny Carter , whose career lasted into the s. Swing music began appearing in the early s and was distinguished by a more supple feel than the more literal 4 4 of early jazz.
Walter Page is often credited with developing the walking bass , though earlier examples exist, such as Wellman Braud on Ellington's Washington Wabble from This type of music flourished through the early s, although there was little mass audience for it until around Up until that time, it was viewed with ridicule and looked upon as a curiosity. After , big bands rose to prominence playing swing music and held a major role in defining swing as a distinctive style.
Western swing musicians also formed popular big bands during the same period. There was a considerable range of styles among the hundreds of popular bands. Many of the better known bands reflected the individuality of the bandleader, the lead arranger, and the personnel.
Count Basie played a relaxed, propulsive swing, Bob Crosby more of a dixieland style, Benny Goodman a hard driving swing, and Duke Ellington's compositions were varied and sophisticated.
Many bands featured strong instrumentalists whose sounds dominated, such as the clarinets of Benny Goodman and Artie Shaw , the trombone of Jack Teagarden , the trumpet of Harry James , the drums of Gene Krupa , and the vibes of Lionel Hampton.
Some bands were "society bands" which relied on strong ensembles but little on soloists or vocalists, such as the bands of Guy Lombardo and Paul Whiteman. By this time the big band was such a dominant force in jazz that the older generation found they either had to adapt to it or simply retire. King: Lucille B. King: Lucille Talks Back B. King: Rock Me Baby B.
King: Six Silver Strings B. King: Take It Home B. King: The Best Of B. Thomas: Country B. Thomas: Greatest Hits Volume 1 B. I Barney Kessel: Let's Cook! Benny Goodman: Performance Recordings Vol. Big Mama Thornton: Sassy Mama! Bobby Blue Bland: Best Of Lucky Buddy Fite: Buddy Fite!
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