Learn More Specifics. See, Play and Learn No links available. Resources Find an Expert. For You Children Patient Handouts. The most common types of infections are Ear infections Sinus infections Pneumonia Sepsis Meningitis How the diagnosis is made depends upon where the infection is.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Diagnosis and Tests. Complications are rare, but include infection of the tissue surrounding the eyes, bone infection, and a painful collection of pus abscess. Skip directly to site content Skip directly to page options Skip directly to A-Z link. Pneumococcal Disease. Section Navigation. Facebook Twitter LinkedIn Syndicate.
Symptoms and Complications. Minus Related Pages. Streptococcus pneumoniae played a central role in demonstrating that genetic material consists of DNA. In , Frederick Griffith demonstrated transformation of life turning harmless pneumococcus into a lethal form by co-inoculating the live pneumococci into a mouse along with heat-killed virulent pneumococci. The genome of S. It has a core set of genes , plus genes in its virulome, which contribute to virulence and genes that maintain a noninvasive phenotype.
Natural bacterial transformation involves the transfer of DNA from one bacterium to another through the surrounding medium. Transformation is a complex developmental process requiring energy and is dependent on expression of numerous genes. For a bacterium to bind, take up, and recombine exogenous DNA into its chromosome , it must enter a special physiological state called competence. Competence in S.
On the basis of these findings, they suggested that transformation is an adaptation for repairing oxidative DNA damages. The ability of S. Consistent with this premise, Li et al. Streptococcus pneumoniae is part of the normal upper respiratory tract flora. As with many natural flora, it can become pathogenic under the right conditions, typically when the immune system of the host is suppressed.
Invasins , such as pneumolysin , an anti phagocytic capsule , various adhesins , and immunogenic cell wall components are all major virulence factors. After S. This condition is called pneumonia. Pneumonia is the most common of the S. For the elderly, they may include confusion, low alertness, and the former listed symptoms to a lesser degree.
Pneumococcal meningitis is an infection of the tissue covering the brain and spinal cord. Symptoms include stiff neck, fever, headache, confusion, and photophobia. Sepsis is caused by overwhelming response to an infection and leads to tissue damage, organ failure , and even death.
The symptoms include confusion, shortness of breath, elevated heart rate, pain or discomfort, over-perspiration, fever, shivering, or feeling cold. Due to the importance of disease caused by S. The World Health Organization recommends routine childhood pneumococcal vaccination;  it is incorporated into the childhood immunization schedule in a number of countries including the United Kingdom,  the United States,  and South Africa.
Historically, Haemophilus influenzae has been a significant cause of infection, and both H. Any opinions in the examples do not represent the opinion of the Cambridge Dictionary editors or of Cambridge University Press or its licensors. The increased secretions that accompany influenza viral infection, when modeled in mice, were found to help pneumococcus overcome the population constraints that come with remaining in one host.
The adult vaccines for influenza and pneumococcus have been found to be cost-effective in well-done studies 31; From the Cambridge English Corpus. In half, the unusual organism was hemophilus 4 , with pneumococcus 2 , herella 1 and moraxella 1 making up the other half. The infecting organism in the cases with damage was staphylococcus in 19, streptococcus in 11, pneumococcus in one and herella in one.
However, serotype exchange and capsular switching by pneumococci leading to an increase in virulence has been observed [40, 41]. Since there is an association between carriage and the spread of disease, children may be a major source of pneumococci and pneumococcal disease in the community.
Widely present as the pneumococcus is, we know well that it is powerless for harm except in unhealthful surroundings. From Project Gutenberg. Various organisms have been found in other forms of meningitis--the pneumococcus most frequently. Those most commonly found are staphylococci, streptococci, and pneumococci. This applies particularly to those instances in which pneumococci, streptococci, micrococci, and colon bacilli are the causative agents but to others as well.
The pneumococcus holds the purple stain, while all capsules take on the pink counter-stain. Authorities are still divided as to the meaning and even the precise frequency of the occurrence of the pneumococcus in the healthy human mouth.
It was similar to that of a pathologist observing for the first time a new and particularly virulent strain of pneumococcus under his microscope.
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