Use WorldCat tools Keep library resources close at hand from your browser or personalized Web page. Build a bibliography Get citations of library materials in five common styles, and export them to a variety of formats including EndNote, Reference Manager and RefWorks. Although many African-American names are common among the larger population of the United States, distinct naming trends have emerged within African-American culture. Prior to the s and s, most African-American names closely resembled those used within European American culture.
With the rise of the mid-century Civil Rights Movement, there was a dramatic rise in names of various origins. Efforts to recover African heritage inspired selection of names with deeper cultural significance. Before this, using African names was uncommon because African Americans were several generations removed from the last ancestor to have an African name, as slaves were often given European names and most surnames are of Anglo origin.
African-American names have origins in many languages including French , Latin , English , Arabic , and African languages. One very notable influence on African-American names is the Muslim religion. Islamic names entered the popular culture with the rise of The Nation of Islam among Black Americans with its focus on civil rights. The popular name " Aisha " has origins in the Qur'an. Despite the origins of these names in the Muslim religion and the place of the Nation of Islam in the civil rights movement, many Muslim names such as Jamal and Malik entered popular usage among Black Americans simply because they were fashionable, and many Islamic names are now commonly used by African Americans regardless of their religion.
Names of African origin began to crop up as well. By the s and s, it had become common within the culture to invent new names, although many of the invented names took elements from popular existing names. Even with the rise of creative names, it is also still common for African Americans to use biblical, historic, or European names. When slavery was practiced in the United States, it was common for families to be separated through sale.
Even during slavery, however, many African-American families managed to maintain strong familial bonds. Free African men and women, who managed to buy their own freedom by being hired out, who were emancipated, or who had escaped their masters, often worked long and hard to buy the members of their families who remained in bondage and send for them.
Others, separated from blood kin, formed close bonds based on fictive kin; play relations, play aunts, cousins, and the like. This practice, a holdover from African oral traditions such as sanankouya , survived Emancipation, with non-blood family friends commonly accorded the status and titles of blood relations.
This broader, more African concept of what constitutes family and community, and the deeply rooted respect for elders that is part of African traditional societies, may be the genesis of the common use of the terms like "cousin" or "cuz" , "aunt", "uncle", "brother", "sister", "Mother", and "Mama" when addressing other African-American people, some of whom may be complete strangers. Immediately after slavery, African-American families struggled to reunite and rebuild what had been taken.
As late as , when most African Americans lived under some form of segregation, 78 percent of African-American families were headed by married couples. This number steadily declined during the latter half of the 20th century. This apparent weakness is balanced by mutual-aid systems established by extended family members to provide emotional and economic support.
Older family members pass on social and cultural traditions such as religion and manners to younger family members. In turn, the older family members are cared for by younger family members when they cannot care for themselves. These relationships exist at all economic levels in the African-American community, providing strength and support both to the African-American family and the community. African Americans are less likely to own a pet. Since the passing of the Voting Rights Act of , African Americans are voting and being elected to public office in increasing numbers.
As of [update] the United States had approximately 10, African-American elected officials. Only 11 percent of African Americans supported for George W. Bush in the Presidential Election. Social issues such as racial profiling ,  racial disparities in sentencing ,  higher rates of poverty ,  lower access to health care  and institutional racism  in general are important to the African-American community.
While the divide [ which? African-Americans may express political and social sentiments through hip-hop culture , including graffiti , break-dancing , rapping , and more. African Americans in general differ from whites in their condemnation of homosexuality.
This stands in stark contrast to the down-low phenomenon of covert male—male sexual acts. McDonald's has a campaign that celebrates their African-American consumers.
Many celebrities have appropriated African-American culture. African-American neighborhoods are types of ethnic enclaves found in many cities in the United States. The formation of African-American neighborhoods is closely linked to the history of segregation in the United States , either through formal laws, or as a product of social norms.
Despite this, African-American neighborhoods have played an important role in the development of nearly all aspects of both African-American culture and broader American culture. Due to segregated conditions and widespread poverty, some African-American neighborhoods in the United States have been called "ghettos".
The use of this term is controversial and, depending on the context, potentially offensive. Despite mainstream America's use of the term "ghetto" to signify a poor urban area populated by ethnic minorities, those living in the area often used it to signify something positive.
The African-American ghettos did not always contain dilapidated houses and deteriorating projects, nor were all of its residents poverty-stricken. For many African Americans, the ghetto was "home", a place representing authentic "blackness" and a feeling, passion, or emotion derived from the rising above the struggle and suffering of being of African descent in America.
Although African-American neighborhoods may suffer from civic disinvestment ,  with lower-quality schools,  less-effective policing  and fire protection,   there are institutions such as churches and museums and political organizations that help to improve the physical and social capital of African-American neighborhoods. In African-American neighborhoods the churches may be important sources of social cohesion. Many African-American neighborhoods are located in inner cities , and these are the mostly residential neighborhoods located closest to the central business district.
The built environment is often row houses or brownstones, mixed with older single-family homes that may be converted to multi-family homes. In some areas there are larger apartment buildings. Shotgun houses are an important part of the built environment of some southern African-American neighborhoods. The houses consist of three to five rooms in a row with no hallways. This African-American house design is found in both rural and urban southern areas, mainly in African-American communities and neighborhoods.
In Black Rednecks and White Liberals , Thomas Sowell suggested that modern urban black ghetto culture is rooted in the white Cracker culture of the North Britons and Scots-Irish who migrated from the generally lawless border regions of Britain to the American South, where they formed a redneck culture common to both blacks and whites in the antebellum South. According to Sowell, characteristics of this culture included lively music and dance, violence, unbridled emotions, flamboyant imagery, illegitimacy, religious oratory marked by strident rhetoric, and a lack of emphasis on education and intellectual interests.
Through influence, the members look at for the "weak links" or those lost to the trap. The aim is to make it out or "run the streets". From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Part of a series on African Americans History. Black schools Historically black colleges and universities Fraternities Stepping. Studies Art Literature. Martin Luther King Jr.
African-American businesses Middle class Upper class Billionaires. Institutions Black church. Black theology Womanist theology. LGBT community. Dialects and languages. Main article: Harlem Renaissance. Main article: African-American music. Main article: African-American dance. Main article: African-American art.
Main article: African-American literature. See also: List of museums focused on African Americans. Main article: African-American Vernacular English. Main article: African-American hair. Main article: Black church. Main article: African-American Muslims. Main article: African-American Jews. Main article: Soul food. Main article: African-American names. See also: Slave name. Main article: African-American family structure. Main article: African-American neighborhood.
This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. October Learn how and when to remove this template message. United States portal. University of North Carolina Press.
Lapsansky-Werner, and Gary B. June The Journal of Pan African Studies. The Myth of the Negro Past. Sidney Mintz. Beacon Press. Yale University. Archived from the original on May 18, Retrieved May 22, South Carolina Information Highway. Retrieved May 21, University of Houston. June 2, Archived from the original on May 7, Retrieved June 2, Anchor Books.
O'Meally History and Memory in African-American Culture. Oxford University Press. George Washington University. Archived from the original on May 27, Retrieved May 17, University of Virginia. Archived from the original on October 17, Retrieved October 7, Retrieved October 10, Black Regions of the Imagination.
African American Writers between the Nation and the World. Temple University Press. Hecht, Ronald L. Jackson, Sidney A. Ribeau Michigan State University. Archived from the original on June 1, Retrieved June 1, King Encyclopedia. Stanford University. Black Arts Movement. University of Michigan. Archived from the original on February 27, Archived from the original on March 3, Archived from the original on January 27, August 1, African American Music: An Introduction.
Prentice Hall International. Random House. Retrieved October 14, He also scored a major success at the London Palladium, in the years when many big American stars appeared there. In , the program was revived for a season under the title Make Room for Granddaddy. Angela Cartwright who spoke about her on- and off-camera relationship with her television stepfather, Danny Thomas, on a groundbreaking ABC TV show, Make Room for Daddy had said: "I thought Danny was hilarious and he was always cracking me up.
He was loud and gregarious, nothing like my real dad who is far more reserved than that. So, it was fun to be able to make smart remarks and get away with it. I would never have talked to my real parents that way, but in the make-believe world of the Williams family I got away with that. After several auditions, I was the first von Trapp cast. I asked Danny Thomas if he would let me out of my contract so I could be in the movie and he was very gracious to let me out of the last show of the season.
He didn't have to do that and I am very grateful he did. Thomas often appeared in cameos on shows he produced, including his portrayal of the tuxedoed, droll alien Kolak, from the planet Twilo, in the Dick Van Dyke Show science-fiction spoof, "It May Look Like a Walnut". Thomas was responsible for Mary Tyler Moore 's first "big break" in acting. He had remembered her as "the girl with three names" whom he had turned down earlier, but rediscovered her after a lengthy search through photos and records.
Premised around Danny and Kathy Williams caring for their grandson by daughter Terry, who was away with her husband on a long business assignment, the show lasted one season.
By the mids, Thomas's son Tony had become an accomplished television producer. He guest-starred in "In Full Command," the March 18, , series finale of the long-running detective drama Kojak , as a corrupt superior officer in the police department, in an episode directed by series star Telly Savalas.
The last series in which Thomas was a headlining star was One Big Family , which aired in syndication during the — season. The situation comedy's premise was set around a semi-retired comedian whose grandchildren were orphaned after their parents were killed in a car accident. Thomas, like many actors prominent in television, endorsed commercial products.
In particular, two companies that featured him in their advertising were Maxwell House , whose instant coffee he endorsed though it had no decaffeinated variant at the time, he later claimed he had been endorsing a "decaffeinated" instant coffee and the coffee he actually drank had a high caffeine content , [ citation needed ] and Philips Norelco 's "Dial-A-Brew" version of its short-lived "Better Cup Of Coffee" line of electric drip coffee-makers.
One of his other "commercials" was actually a public-service message, with fund-raising goals, for St. Jude Children's Research Hospital. As a "starving actor", Thomas had made a vow: If he found success, he would open a shrine dedicated to St.
Jude Thaddeus , the patron saint of hopeless causes. After becoming a successful actor in the early s, his wife joined him and began traveling the United States to help raise funds to build St.
Since its inception, St. Jude has treated children from all 50 states and around the world, continuing the mission of finding cures and saving children. Peter C. Doherty of St. Jude's Immunology Department, was a co-recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in for key discoveries on how the immune system works to kill virus-infected cells.
Jude's has grown to include eight affiliate hospitals across the United States. Danny Thomas was a struggling young comic when he met Rose Marie Mantell born Rose Marie Cassaniti — , who had a singing career with her own radio show in Detroit , Michigan , and was the daughter of Marie "Mary" Cassaniti — , a drummer and percussionist for "Marie's Merry Music Makers".
The Thomas children followed their parents into entertainment in various capacities— Marlo as an actress and producer, Tony as a television producer, and Terre as an accomplished singer-songwriter. Thomas was initiated to the Freemasonry  in Prudence Lodge No.
He refers to descriptive bibliography as the systematic description of a book as a material or physical artefact. Analytical bibliography, the cornerstone of descriptive bibliography, investigates the printing and all physical features of a book that yield evidence establishing a book's history and transmission Feather It is the preliminary phase of bibliographic description and provides the vocabulary, principles and techniques of analysis that descriptive bibliographers apply and on which they base their descriptive practice.
Descriptive bibliographers follow specific conventions and associated classification in their description. Titles and title pages are transcribed in a quasi-facsimile style and representation.
Illustration, typeface, binding, paper, and all physical elements related to identifying a book follow formulaic conventions, as Bowers established in his foundational opus, The Principles of Bibliographic Description. The thought expressed in this book expands substantively on W. Greg's groundbreaking theory that argued for the adoption of formal bibliographic principles Greg Fundamentally, analytical bibliography is concerned with objective, physical analysis and history of a book while descriptive bibliography employs all data that analytical bibliography furnishes and then codifies it with a view to identifying the ideal copy or form of a book that most nearly represents the printer's initial conception and intention in printing.
In addition to viewing bibliographic study as being composed of four interdependent approaches enumerative, descriptive, analytical, and textual , Bowers notes two further subcategories of research, namely historical bibliography and aesthetic bibliography. McKenzie extended previous notions of bibliography as set forth by Greg, Bowers, Gaskell and Tanselle.
He describes the nature of bibliography as "the discipline that studies texts as recorded forms, and the processes of their transmission, including their production and reception" This concept broadens the scope of bibliography to include "non-book texts" and an accounting for their material form and structure, as well as textual variations, technical and production processes that bring sociocultural context and effects into play.
McKenzie's perspective contextualizes textual objects or artefacts with sociological and technical factors that have an effect on production, transmission and, ultimately, ideal copy Bibliography, generally, concerns the material conditions of books [as well as other texts] how they are designed, edited, printed, circulated, reprinted, collected. Bibliographic works differ in the amount of detail depending on the purpose and can generally be divided into two categories: enumerative bibliography also called compilative, reference or systematic , which results in an overview of publications in a particular category and analytical or critical bibliography, which studies the production of books.
Now, both categories of bibliography cover works in other media including audio recordings, motion pictures and videos, graphic objects, databases, CD-ROMs  and websites. An enumerative bibliography is a systematic list of books and other works such as journal articles.
Bibliographies range from "works cited " lists at the end of books and articles, to complete and independent publications. A notable example of a complete, independent publication is Gow's A. As separate works, they may be in bound volumes such as those shown on the right, or computerized bibliographic databases. A library catalog , while not referred to as a "bibliography," is bibliographic in nature.
Bibliographical works are almost always considered to be tertiary sources. Enumerative bibliographies are based on a unifying principle such as creator, subject, date, topic or other characteristic. An entry in an enumerative bibliography provides the core elements of a text resource including a title, the creator s , publication date and place of publication.
Belanger distinguishes an enumerative bibliography from other bibliographic forms such as descriptive bibliography, analytical bibliography or textual bibliography in that its function is to record and list, rather than describe a source in detail or with any reference to the source's physical nature, materiality or textual transmission.
The enumerative list may be comprehensive or selective.
Big God (B-Side) - Monster Magnet - Powertrip (Vinyl, LP, Album), Come Buoni Nemici, Good Night Melodies, I Want You - The Lust-O-Rama* - The In-Crowd E.P. (Vinyl), The Sound / Positively Inclined - Wax Tailor - Phonovisions Symphonic Orchestra (CD, Album), Über Den Wellen - Orgue - Mortier - Orgel* - Orgue - Mortier - Orgel (Vinyl, LP), Jah Jah Worker (Version), Higgins Holler - Cedar Walton - Plays Cedar Walton - The Prestige Collection (Cassette), McCready’s - Scott Wood Band* - Upsurge (CD, Album), Ik Heb t Niet Gedaan - Thérèse Steinmetz - Opus 1 + 3 - Theater Tour de Chant (Vinyl, LP, Album), We Are The Champions Oi Broliai Broliai (Vestuvine) - Birute Zalanskaite, Dormantas Guliokas - Proteviu Dainos (Cassette,