The band added "What They Do" was also the group's first single to hit the Top 40 of Billboard's charts, reaching a peak of Scott Storch left the band and was replaced by a new keyboardist, Kamal Gray. The band's sound would take a darker turn during this period, heavily influenced by the Wu-Tang Clan and the RZA 's grimy and haunting production style, replete with samples from old jazz and classical music.
The album is also notable for its many guests and collaborators, including Common , D'Angelo , Q-Tip , and others. These collaborations would provide the foundation for the creation of the Soulquarians and permanently forged the Roots' association with the neo-soul subgenre.
This was their breakthrough album, peaking at No. Mos Def contributed to the track entitled "Double Trouble". Steve Huey of the website allmusic. After this album, Dice Raw left the collective to record his solo debut album Reclaiming the Dead. In the summer, the band performed at the Woodstock '99 concert in New York state. Several members, including longtime member Malik B. The Roots released Phrenology named after the pseudoscience of the same name in Despite not charting as high as Things Fall Apart , reaching a peak of No.
At the time, however, there came rumors that the Roots were losing interest in their signing with MCA. During this time, the band backed Jay-Z for his farewell concert in Madison Square Garden and appeared in the accompanying Fade to Black concert film. In , Home Grown! The Roots were among several performers on the film Dave Chappelle's Block Party , whose event took place on September 18,  and was released on film two years later. Questlove describes the album as being very dark and reflective of the political state in America.
It earned an 83 on Metacritic and 2 Grammy Nominations. The late J Dilla is honoured on different occasions throughout the album. Track 1 is credited to be "Supervised by J Dilla".
Track 13 "Can't Stop This" is devoted to his persona, the first part being an edited version of a track "Time: The Donut of the Heart" of his Donuts album, released three days before his death.
This version comprises vocals by Black Thought. Secondly, a string of kindred artists reminisce about J Dilla in the form of answering machine messages. The Roots' eighth studio album, Rising Down , was released on April 29, , the year anniversary of the Los Angeles riots. In the weeks before the album's release, the original first single "Birthday Girl", a radio-friendly collaboration with Fall Out Boy's Patrick Stump was removed from the album reportedly because it didn't fit in with the album's tone.
Picking up where Game Theory left off, the album maintains a dark and political tone, with Black Thought and several guests venting about the ills of society today. Rising Down features the Roots incorporating a more electronic and synth -heavy feel into their sound. Rising Down was released to critical acclaim, garnering an overall score of 80 on Metacritic.
How I Got Over reflects the relief the band felt at the end of the Bush administration and the beginning of the Obama presidency. Guests include Blu , Phonte and Patty Crash. A cover of Cody Chesnutt 's song "Serve This Royalty" was expected to be covered on the album, similar to the group's reworking of his single for The Seed 2. On June 24, , the Roots debuted the first single and title track from the album live on Late Night with Jimmy Fallon.
The song features longtime Roots collaborator Dice Raw. Undun tells the story of their semi-fictional character, Redford Stephens, who struggles unsuccessfully to avoid a life of crime and fast money. The album's name is inspired by The Guess Who 's song "undun", and the character was named after the Sufjan Stevens song "Redford".
The Roots released The first single, "When the People Cheer", was released on April 7, Black Thought described the album as a satirical look at violence in hip-hop and American society overall. In an interview with Fuse TV , Questlove said he also had " In October , the group announced their 17th studio album, End Game. Another MC, Dice Raw , joined the band in cameo appearances on later albums.
The band filled Storch's position with Kamal Gray keyboards , who continues in that capacity. His absence was not publicly explained, however on the September 17, NBC's 'Late Night' th episode, Gray returned to the group. Beatboxer Rahzel was a band member from to However Scratch left abruptly in Malik B. Guitarist Ben Kenney had a brief stint with the group and contributed to the Phrenology album, but left to join Incubus as bassist.
Vocalist Martin Luther toured with the Roots in and and contributed to the Tipping Point album. The group announced in August that its longtime bassist Leonard Hubbard was leaving. Owen Biddle was the band's bassist in — Of course, this may be also a result of the failure of the technology. Criticisms of these notions come from those who stress the importance of context, that of organisations and institutions in shaping ideas Hodgson, In our railway example it might be a lack of co-ordination of operating companies, or poorly integrated time-tabling.
Classic examples of this institutional or organisational effect have been discussed in relation to the role of genre, and of 'programming' and schedules, that provide the necessary pigeon holes for ideas, and thereby make 'boundaries of the possible' for creativity and innovation Williams, The same analytic tensions exist in conceptualisations of innovation in respect to industrial production.
Traditional models of innovation characterise a linear, discrete, stepwise process, which begins with a 'bright idea' an innovation , and proceeds via prototype and manufacture to market. Such a model makes implicit assumptions about causality and process, for example, that innovation is a discrete activity, or that it has a unidirectional causal relationship with manufacture and production.
Moreover, linear innovation models are linked to two other narratives: first, the notion of diffusion of ideas through society and space; second, that of the external relationship of technology and organisation to economic processes. This ideal-type concept of innovation can be bent to either a methodological individualism or a structural functionalism.
Clearly, in order to form the latter, one would need a sophisticated understanding of the processes by which cultural industries benefited , or not, from co-location. As we will elaborate in this collection, the nuanced interplay of social and physical embedding in place and industry may produce the innovative effect. Clustering may be necessary, but it is not sufficient, for innovation. Clearly we regard as mistaken the presumption that converting an old building and branding it a cultural quarter will lead to either economic activity in the cultural economy, or urban regeneration.
Other approaches are emerging in the wake of the technologies and systems of the world wide web that illustrate the multi-dimensional character of knowledge and learning. We are not suggesting that this technology and organisation is intrinsically more 'innovative', only that it has yet to be normalised and proscribed and shaped as rigourously as previous technologies.
What is commonly known as 'web 2. It enables a reconfiguration of old norms. Two examples of which are 'the long tail' and the 'wisdom of crowds'.
In the former Anderson, , the supply of cultural goods was previously limited by warehousing costs; moreover, the logical business model was to encourage consumers to have minimal choice and benefit from economies of scale in supply and manufacture.
Thus cultural products for which there was a small audience lost out, it was too expensive to provide for them. The so-called long tail model points to the possibility with digital goods where storage and distribution are nearly zero, so that even goods for which there is a very small market may, over a very long time recoup investment.
Time is no longer the penalty it was. In the latter case Tapscott and Williams, , it has been argued, most clearly in 'Wikinomics', that it is possible to develop new products and ideas using proprietary controls and secrecy, but in the end it is very expensive. The alternative is to have the R and D done by a large number of individuals also termed 'democratised innovation ', see von Hippel ; examples of this being the development of the Linux operating system and software, as well as the encyclopaedia Wikipedia.
The insight that these empirical examples point to, in relation to our Prior discussion, is a simple one, but one that mainstream concepts deny, that knowledge can be advanced collectively and relationally. Perhaps the transformation of web 2. At the same time several researchers in the field of intellectual property law have pointed out that the current configuration of intellectual property laws was based upon a materialist conception of property not on a relational nor virtual conception.
Moreover, that the current regime may have the effect of undermining the very creativity that it was established to protect. Re-conceptualisationsThe linear and atomistic innovation model as discussed in the section before last, applied to content or to technology, still remains a common lay conception; however, it is much criticised in academic writing Simmie, ;. Three categories of criticism can be identified: first, those that find fault with the unidirectional nature of the model; researchers have pointed to the importance of feedback mechanisms, and this agenda has obvious resonance with the work on innovation systems that have emerged from institutional and evolutionary economics Hodgson, The second theme of criticism is one that seeks to substitute a network model in the place of a linear-feedback one.
Broadly speaking, institutional approaches seek to internalise elements of organisation and of technology into the processes of production; in some analyses these also extend to the incorporation of governance or regulatory relationships. Third, the notion that ideas are autonomous, free standing, or that technical objects are 'self-defining'.
The criticism here is that meaning and use are context dependent, as has been debated under the heading of the Social Shaping Of Technology SST Pratt, SST studies take issue with the ontological and epistemic assumptions of atomistic and teleological perspectives that underpin many notions of innovation. There is not space to elaborate on these debates here; however, we want to position ourselves to engage with the SST thematic. Perhaps one of the most striking and novel dimensions of SST work is the agency that it seeks to situate with 'users' and the 'objects of technology ' Cawson et al.
The emphasis is very much on the situated co-constitution of objects, products and effects. Very simply, such approaches direct our attention to the ways in which final users, or more generally markets, cannot be viewed as simple receptors of innovation, instead they might be better considered as constituting the utility of innovations.
A simple case, taken from another media, music, might be the design of the Apple iPod by Jonathan Ive. The design created a market and wove together technologies to create a new form of music distribution and potential revenue models. More specifically, it is interesting to see how a key site of struggle has been the 'chart' that previously mimicked distribution channels.
In heterogeneous fashion markets book, music, film, etc. The very fact of being 'No 1' means that, aside from the publicity engendered, distribution channels stock the item. The potential of download charts to dilute market concentration and hence monopoly is clear counter to the interests, and past organisation, of industries such as music, film and fashion ; David Hesmondhalgh's chapter elsewhere in this collection.
An important point in such analyses is the deconstruction of notions of 'technology' and 'innovation' and their companion atomistic and romantic notions of artists that are otherwise mobilised in traditional analyses in an unproblematic way.
Discussion of the social shaping of technology seeks to reposition innovation and creativity as co-constructions and outcomes or effects. Researchers point to the temporary success of innovations when other conditions are stabilised, or held steady, or, all participants are encouraged to enable something to happen. It is apparent that this is as much of a political and management achievement as one of economics and technology, and of material things.
Researchers examining the organisation of work in the cultural economy have highlighted a couple of aspects of work that are becoming more widespread. The first is the performative nature of work; it is not simply enough to perform the task, but it has to be done in a particular manner, in extreme cases almost as theatre. This performance extends to appearance and dress; Warhust terms it aesthetic labour. The second is the incorporative nature of management.
Boltanski and Chaipello , in an extensive study of changing management practices, have pointed to the way that employers seek to minimise the alienation of 'creatives' through 'soft' management techniques, we also see this in Chris Bilton's chapter in this collection.
Elsewhere, Thrift extends this notion to suggest that new management discourses have come to characterise 'soft capitalism'.
Writers such as Hardt and Negri have suggested that such means are doomed to failure, as in effect they are creating a new precarious army of labour from cleaners to 'creatives' which will have common cause and will potentially reject the siren calls to give their labour 'free' and their ideas to employers.
As Rosalind Gill shows in her chapter, the demands of aesthetic and emotional labour might be different in kind, but otherwise just as exhausting as those of physical labour see Gill and Pratt The core questions of this bookPulling together the threads of the arguments and criticisms reviewed in this chapter we can now highlight what we feel are important questions concerning the relationship of creativity and innovation, and the cultural and creative industries CCI.
Whilst the field of the cultural and creative industries is marked by research and assertions that they are 'different' from the rest of the economy, there is little discussion about the variations between the different industries, nor amongst the same industry along its production chain.
Hence, a central argument that we need to test is whether the cultural and creative industries are 'cut from the same cloth' or to what extent they are different from one another, and why. Our main focus in this introduction has been both the conceptualisation of creativity and innovation, and to what extent may this be regarded as a characteristic or differentiator of the cultural and creative industries. The outcome of this concern is of considerable interest to policy makers, like that of the differences between and within the cultural and creative industries already referred to.
The discussion in this chapter has sought to tease out a number of strands. First, we offered some criticisms of the ontology of innovation and creativity: was it a quality of an individual or a structure?
We pointed to the inadequacies of both approaches, plus the related ways of measuring creativity and innovation in terms of outputs and inputs which normative accounts suggested were open to manipulation via incentives based upon rational choice.
Our point, a significant conceptual challenge to normative literature in the field, was that innovation and creativity are better conceived as 'emergent'; or to put it another way, they are constituted by the agent in a structural context, the outcome of which cannot be simply anticipated in advance and is subject to considerable feedback and, one major source of uncertainty, the competence of agents to recognise, understand and act upon, such feedback.
We argued that such a perspective resonates with the strong critique of linear and unidirectional models of innovation and creativity. Once again we found that the potential for feedback and learning was constituted in situ, in places, and in an embodied fashion.
Simply reading about it was not enough, you had to be there. This embodied nature of interaction was related to the subtlety and timeliness of information exchange, its often informal character, and its reliance upon the swiftly shifting reputation of the carrier. A useful representation of this process is characterised -after -as the 'field of innovation and creativity'.
Finally, we draw another radical conclusion -one that is increasingly being suggested in empirical studies -that of the collapsing of the categories of production and consumption into one another; or, at the very least the creation of a significant and fluid relationship between them 1. Given our argument for the importance of situated and embedded practice, we could not, nor have sought to, offer a detailed 'model' of innovation and creativity; instead we underline the importance of detailed and industry-and place-specific studies to bring out these issues.
This approach should not be read as a rejection of any cross-locational or industrial process, rather that one should be able to identify some common processes; but also, that one can see how even similar processes, when mobilised under different conditions, produce a variety of outcomes 2. Approach and structureThis section elaborates upon the method behind the structure of the collection, and how we have sought to use this to develop an interrogatory framework that tests and challenges some of the assumptions laid out in this introductory chapter.
Our book is different from most that have been written about the cultural and creative industries; its main point of differentiation is the fact that we seek to highlight the role of particular cultural industries within the CCI sector, paying attention to organisation and to labour process issues. This is a point that has been made elliptically in the various creative industry mapping documents where cultural and creative industries are differentiated, for instance, in the classic UK version in 13 industries.
However, whilst these reports use a taxonomic division of the cultural and creative industries, little further analysis is carried out into the possibility of different forms of organisation, innovation or creativity, or labour organisation or process that is to be found there.
Such a lack of empirical investigation has led to a lack of questioning of the normative statements concerning the internal sameness of the cultural and creative industries and their difference to non-cultural and creative industries.
Hence, our desire in this collection is to examine differences as well as similarities within industries. It was not our objective to provide a comprehensive and complete study of every industry, in particular the taxonomies of the creative industries; we sought to focus on a range of different industries that might point out salient issues. Our selection encompasses the traditional fields of the arts looking at galleries and museums; and extends all the way to the ultra-commercial field of advertising.
We draw upon analyses of the design field, perhaps the most amorphous but emblematic area of the creative industries, particularly for politicians and lay people an expression of the 'creative' premium. We also examine the traditional and well recognised, but under-researched, stalwarts of film and television.
Finally, we take in the range from the new to the old media form, notably those at the cutting-edge of digitisation: new media to music. We believe that our selection illustrates the range of activities in the cultural economy. We have also sought to draw upon a range of national contexts: primarily European, but including North America. These nation states are in an internationally controlling position regarding the political economy of the cultural economy.
However, the impact and organisation of the cultural economy is global in its reach, and clearly there still remains a need for complementary analyses from the rest of the world. We recognise this as a weakness, and one that, given our emphasis upon the social, economic, cultural and political embedding of cultural production, is even more limiting. Given our comments about the conceptualisation of innovation and creativity, and the appropriateness or not of particular data, we pay particular stress on more qualitative methods of information gathering.
A related problem for researchers is how to reach out beyond the narrow confines of traded and formal products and information; the role of trust and reputation suggests a rather complex 'terms of trade' between individuals and groups.
Thus, our contributors steer clear for the most part of general measures and indicators in favour of trying to understand the processes and translation of information and ideas, as well as the socio-economic structures, networks and institutions that sustain them. As will be noted in the concluding chapter, we argue that this approach has yielded particular insight into the processes under which the cultural and creative industries operate, as well as the subtle differences between different industries as they constitute their local forms of innovation and creativity.
As noted earlier, by pairing the chapters we have sought to bring out further dimensions of the range of processes involved, and point to appropriate means of information capture. Moreover, we have selected chapters from an illustrative range of industries that comprise a range of the cultural economy. Our objective here is to point out the salient differences, as well as similarities within these activities.
We have chosen writers from a range of disciplines as we argue that a multi-and crossdisciplinary perspective is needed on these issues.
The 12 substantive chapters are paired into 6 industries; we use the pairing to play off different approaches and methodological insights as a strategy to highlight a variety of nuances of particular industries.
We begin our illustrative journey across the breadth of the creative and cultural industries with advertising in London, perhaps the most obvious example of 'commercial' culture. The issue is never simply a matter of cost, but of a particular quality. An intriguing point that arises from these chapters is how are such qualities instilled? In a complex manner both chapters examine different ways in which particular types of workers have been constituted by the industry through its organisational structure, its recruitment, and its office culture.
The next pair of chapters shifts our focus to music; here, again we have two contrasting perspectives that highlight significant complexities. Simon Frith, Martin Cloonan and John Williamson's paper on the music industry in Scotland discusses the instrumental use of music for economic development that fails to attend to the music form itself.
David Hesmondhalgh examines the regulatory structure of copyright that, whilst so often presented as protection of the artist, may often as not undermine artists through a transfer of rights to a larger corporation.
Both chapters illustrate how a nuanced understanding of music production is a foundation for unpicking the 'creative process' and beginning to consider effective interventions into it. The third pairing illustrates very clearly the complex trade-off that occurs between creativity and profit in the film industry.
Whilst Mark Lorenzen examines the framing of creativity at an industry and organisational level, the second paper by Andy Pratt and Galina Gornostaeva's on London's film industry shifts its emphasis to the governance of risk within the film making system.
Both chapters highlight the local constitution of what constitutes creativity and risk -on the one hand the role of industrial organisation structures, and on the other regulatory structures, a point which echoes the chapters on advertising.
The fourth pairing examines the new media industry, predominantly the area of design for the World Wide Web. Tom Hutton's paper on Vancouver provides us with a clear example of the urban and physical co-location of this industry a point that can be replicated in other cultural and creative industries ; it is clear that such industries are embedded in place.
Rosalind Gill's chapter on web designers in Amsterdam takes us inside the new media companies and workers' lives. She provides a stark and subtle illustration of the social and affective nature of work in this industry, and the ways in which 'new' work practices are embedded in identity and a particular form of sociality again illustrating the corresponding existence of strong 'artistic', as well as 'commercial' values.
Twenty years ago, the concept of the 'cultural' industries located creativity in distinctive cultures, often with a specific cultural geography or an identifiable subcultural content and context. Today definitions of the 'creative' industries and the creative economy relocate and redefine creativity in the managerial rhetoric of value chains, knowledge management and innovation. In the creative industries, the association of creativity with 'individual skill' and 'talent' DCMS draws upon Western Romantic and psychological theories of individual creative genius Weisberg At the same time the identification of the creative industries with 'the generation and exploitation of intellectual property' frames creativity in terms of a managed process of production and delivery of inputs and outputs DCMS The creative economy takes us still further from notions of individual talent and aesthetic quality.
Creative occupations have extended to include everybody from footballers to accountants. The networks which underpin this emergent creative economy extend both horizontally into cultural and aesthetic communities, and vertically into managerial systems of implementation and distribution.
Just as the new rhetoric of creative industries and creative economy locates creativity within a process of managed innovation, today's managers and management gurus are increasingly likely to describe the processes of innovation and management as inherently 'creative' Prichard Innovation in technology, management processes and new product development has always contained this element of 'creativity'.
Such a progression is not dissimilar to psychological theories of creativity as an incremental process involving multiple stages of development and styles of thinking Weisberg , Boden , Sternberg As creative industries and creative processes take on the rhetoric of value chains, inputs and outputs, and vice versa, we should perhaps describe innovation as a variant or extension of the creative process rather than something distinct or separate from it.
Where once we might have described creativity in terms of idea origination, and innovation as a process of idea implementation, today that distinction looks increasingly untenable. What does 'creativity' mean in today's creative economy, and where do we find it? My argument is that creativity is no longer the sole preserve of the traditionally defined creative industry, occupation or department. Creative work and creative workers are having to take on managerial functions.
At the same time, managers are beginning to seek recognition for their 'creative' contribution. Creativity is accordingly being relocated and redefined, first as something integral to the process of management, second as a brand value which managers and non-managers actively seek to promote to their clients.
This process of relocation and redefinition will be examined in the advertising industry. Traditionally, creative teams in advertising have been separated from the rest of the agency both structurally through the division of labour between 'creatives' and account managers, and culturally as Nixon describes in his contribution to this book. In this chapter I argue that creativity in advertising is no longer the preserve of specialist functions and departments, but is used to refer to a broader range of strategic business services.
This new emphasis is reflected in the growing importance of media planning and account planning in the organisational hierarchy, and in the prioritising of strategic analysis over creative execution in the industry's value chain.
I will chart these developments through a historical overview of the industry and a more detailed examination of one agency, Naked Communications 1. The historical section covers three phases. The starting point is a belief in creativity as the core competence of the agency, identified with star copywriters and art directors from the s onwards. Over the next twenty years, this belief has been replaced by a growing emphasis on management competences, in particular the functions of account planning and media planning and a more 'holistic' approach to the client's needs.
This change in emphasis was reflected in new business models and structures responding to changing client priorities and a new media environment. Finally I will argue that whilst advertising agencies have redefined their role, from creative producer to strategy adviser, 'creativity' nevertheless remains an important residual reminder of the agency's unique competences and brand.
Even if clients are being given a management solution rather than a creative one, the proposed strategy is still likely to be branded as 'creative'. The 'culture' of creativity in advertising, as described by Nixon in this book, is in any case too strong to be submerged in general consultancy services.
In this third phase of development I argue that creativity in advertising functions primarily as a branding strategy rather than as a designated function or activity. Culturally and structurally, the 'no-collar workplace' and 'project ecology' of the creative agency are contained within hierarchical systems of control and accountability. These paradoxes are reflected in the ambiguous positioning of creativity within the business of advertising. David Ogilvy claimed to have banned his staff in his agency from using the word 'creative' to describe any of the functions of advertising Ogilvy , Sergio Zyman, the former Head of Marketing at Coca Cola, is similarly dismissive, arguing that the business of advertising is about selling, not about creativity Zyman , Historically there has existed a structural and functional division in advertising between the 'creative' work of copywriters and art directors and the management functions of account planning and strategy.
Culturally these functional distinctions have been reinforced by the mutual suspicion between 'creatives' and 'suits' Bilton, Cummings and Wilson ;Hughes , based on gender, education and class Nixon When senior advertising professionals like Ogilvy and Zyman express their suspicion of creativity and creatives, they refer to a rather narrow, individualised and self-serving form of creativity which is disconnected from its strategic and commercial goals.
Such a narrowly defined, purely aesthetic creativity is only one small part of the business of advertising; Ogilvy is warning that, freed from all constraint and accountability, personal creative goals might overtake the larger objectives of a campaign.
To cite a more recent self-critic of creativity in advertising, Simon Clemmow of Clemmow Hornby Inge, 'the desired response to a great ad is not "What a great ad" but "What a great product"' Clemmow , This suspicion that creative processes and creative people might get in the way of the business of advertising is both cause and effect of the structural division between account executives and creative teams. The practice of 'buffering' the creative process insulates 'creatives' from direct contact with the client, on the assumption that either the client will undermine the integrity of the creative process, or the maverick creative will sabotage the client relationship Bilton AquacultureFish and prawn cultures have been proven to be economically more profitable, especially for oversea markets.
Similarly, many estuaries and rivers have been the sites for fish cultures, especially in the Kilim-Kisap area of Langkawi, Matang and Kuala Selangor. The prawn cultures have been developed somewhat inland but still in the mangrove forests. In Selangor, for example, aquacultures have significantly depleted mangrove areas in Kuala Bernam and Jugra Haliza et al.
Ong had already warned about the proliferation and expansion of aquaculture industries in Malaysia as the demand for fishes and other aquaculture produce are on the increase due to the popularity of seafoods. The conversion of mangrove areas to aquaculture farms not only was prominent in Selangor but also in almost all other states, notably in Langkawi, Perak, Johor, Sarawak and Sabah.
ResettlementAs the inland mangrove forest areas are converted to other land-use, especially the oil palm plantation, a small area in Selangor, about ha of the mangrove forest, also gave way for resettlement of indigenous communities as in Kuala Sepang Haliza et al. Similarly, in Langkawi some areas were converted to fish landing ports, and the mangroves of the Malut area were cleared, developed and later abandoned. However, this conversion to settlement area is insignificant. Impacts on Mangroves PollutionBoth the pollution in the estuaries and rivers has its sources in the inland industrial and agricultural activities and other land-use patterns upstream.
Historically we have judged the quality of water in the mangrove areas by its foul smell and dark colour as being affected by pollutants. In Matang in particular, sediments from the developing town of Taiping flowed into the mangrove areas, making the muddy sediments sandy. Activities such as aquaculture, cockle harvesting, navigation and river settlement also contribute to river and estuarine pollution. Kamil et al. Almost all rivers in Malaysia which originate from the hinterland carrying loads of pollutants will pass through belts of mangroves on both sides of the rivers and estuaries.
The authors wonder what would be the short-term and long-term effects of these pollutants, especially the grease and heavy metals, on the biodiversity of the mangrove areas downstream. There are not many studies on this aspect to discern. Mangroves of Malaysia Langkawi Islands Floristic CompositionPulau Langkawi has an exceptional natural settings and beautiful landscapes that attract both naturalists, scientists and tourists alike.
The mangrove forests of the Kilim-Kisap areas in particular are testimony to the above statement. In addition, the mangrove forests there are found on the shallow limestone substratum, making them one of the most outstanding features in Peninsular Malaysia, and possibly in the world. The mangrove ecosystem is both dynamic and fragile and is very sensitive to both natural stochastic events and human activities. Though they provide many essential services such as storm protection, erosion control, waste-water clean-up, and forest products, they are consistently subjected to conversion to other landuse purposes of greater economic returns.
Wan Juliana et al. Out of the total 76 species, 32 are exclusive, 33 are non-exclusive and 11 are associate mangrove species. Comparatively, the mangrove forests in the Langkawi islands have a high diversity of mangrove plants in Peninsular Malaysia. In , the total mangrove area of the Langkawi Islands was Some of the mangrove areas had been earmarked for aquaculture ponds, chalets, navy facilities and other uses.
Norhayati and Latiff had estimated the density of mangroves in a 1 ha plot as being per ha, and the stands belonging to nine species and four families. The most dominant species is Rhizophora apiculata with an important value of Threats and ConservationIt is estimated that in there was a total of 4, This means that between and , a total of From another study, in a period of five years 6. These activities coincided with the fact that Pulau Langkawi was declared as a free-trade zone in As stated by Norhayati and Latiff , the estimated above-ground biomass of mangroves in Pulau Langkawi Using this figure it could be estimated that the total amount of biomass lost in the last 11 years was 46, From to a total of The threats and management of the mangroves of Langkawi in particular has been discussed by Latiff Soepadmo and Pandi Mat Zain surveyed the mangroves of Sementa, Selangor where 32 species of plants were found.
The dominant species were Avicennia alba and Sonneratia alba in the Avicennia zone. In the mixed Rhizophora zone, the dominant species were Rhizophora mucronata and R. That of Kuala Selangor, to a certain extent, has been conserved with the establishment of a Nature Park. Shah et al. In the year a total of 14, ha existed in the state, which fall under the categories of production forest, soil conservation forest, wildlife conservation forest and Virgin Jungle Reserves.
Since most of the mangrove forests were allocated as Permanent Forest Reserves, and the first working plan was prepared in and the last one was for The case of the Kuala Selangor mangroves illustrates the various threats faced and how management strategised their in situ conservation.
Some pristine patches were developed as a nature park, those along the Sungai Selangor at Kampung Kuantan and Kampung Belimbing were developed for recreation and ecotourism as fireflies occur there, and rehabilitation and restoration were conducted where the mangroves were depleted by natural causes. However, with the construction of the Selangor Dam, some effects on the population of Sonneratia caseolaris along the Sungai Selangor have been observed.
The threats and management of mangroves in Selangor has been discussed by Haliza et al. The latest integrated management plan was developed primarily to conserve and manage the forests through sustainable regime to ensure that they contribute to the state and national economy and environmental stability. The threats to the present mangrove forests come from various sources.
For example, large scale development projects for infrastructure, urban development, industries and harbours in and around Bandar Nusajaya would definitely affect the existing environment of the mangroves. In addition, the proposed petrochemical plant and the Iskandar Corridor development would also pose possible threats Che Hashim et al.
Pantai Tinggi, Kemaman, Terengganu where only 24 species of plants are recorded. The dominant species were Rhizophora apiculata and Bruguiera gymnorrhiza. Lokman and Sulong described the vegetation and flora of the mangroves of Terengganu. Mangroves of the East Coast of Peninsular Malaysia Floristic Composition and BiomassThere are other surveys and floristic studies on the mangroves of the other eastcoast states of Kelantan, Pahang and Johor. However, those of Kelantan are situated on the statelands, and hence not protected.
Furthermore, they occur in small patches at the river mouths and stand structure and composition is rather poor. There were some studies but neither published nor reported for reference. Those in Pahang are comparatively richer, especially in the Kuantan and Rompin districts. Threats and ConservationThe mangroves in the east coast states of Peninsular Malaysia, particularly those in Terengganu and Pahang are not-well sheltered by lagoons and rivers, unlike those in the west coast states.
Hence they are not as diverse and widely distributed. However, they are also threatened by similar factors such as strong waves, especially during the monsoon, small-scale agriculture, aquaculture, resettlements and construction of infrastructures, especially those in Setiu, Dungun and Kemaman, Terengganu Gong et al. This exercise augurs very well for mangrove conservation in Peninsular Malaysia.
Tangah stated that Sabah has about , ha of mangrove forests in the forest reserves and about an additional 25, ha are outside the reserves.
Much of them are still pristine and not exploited for commercial purposes. A review of the past and current status of the mangrove forest management was conducted by Kugan who revealed that the state had embarked on production of chipwood and bark from mangrove trees on a commercial scale in the early s.
However, the insignificant contribution to the state's revenue and the damaging extraction method employed prompted the state government to discontinue it in The challenges that the state government had embarked were to store the timber stocks, to arrest the competing land-use, to diversify resource utilization, to maintain a healthy mangrove ecosystem and increase efforts in conservation Liew Fatimah et al.
Mangroves of Sabah Threats and ConservationAs stated earlier much of the mangroves in Sabah are still intact in their natural state.
Several years ago the state government decided to exploit for rayon and only recently the project had been terminated. The authors do not foresee pertinent threats to the Sabah mangroves as the demand for their exploitation is not significant.
However, when the resources of the lowland dipterocarp forests of Sabah diminish there is the possibility the timber resources of the mangroves will be tapped. Mangroves of SarawakAccording to the national figures, Sarawak has about , ha of mangroves. However, according to Marajan , based on satellite imagery of the km long coastline, some , ha are covered with mangrove forests.
This illustrates very well that up-to-date techniques such as aerial photography and satellite imagery could enhance the inventory of resources. Similar to Sabah, Sarawak also went for chipwood and charcoal production for export and the annual production had been substantial.
The poles and other non-wood products were for domestic use. The management plans were written in the s and the main objectives were to satisfy the domestic demand for poles, firewood and charcoal and to export the surplus. Threats and ConservationThe authors foresee pertinent threats to the Sarawak mangroves will occur in the next decade as the demand for their land conversion and exploitation of the rich resources are becoming more apparent Ashton and McIntosh However, like Sabah when the resources of the lowland dipterocarp forests and peat swamp forests of Sarawak diminish, there is the possibility the timber resources of the mangroves will be tapped too.
Management and ConservationThe Departments of Forestry in Malaysia, as custodians and managers of the mangrove forests, are all committed to conservation of biodiversity which emphasize both the protection and sustainable utilization of the resources. In Malaysia, the basis and concept that underlines the practice of sustainable forestry is to set aside adequate natural forest lands, including mangrove forests, as Permanent Forest Estates PFE that are strategically located throughout the country.
There are two types of PFEs, namely, the production and protection forests. While the cutting cycle for hill mixed dipterocarp forest is 25 years, that for peat swamp forest is 45 years and for the mangroves it is between 20 and 30 years and is kept unamended. The management and conservation of mangrove forests are discussed under the following sub-headings. Sustainable Forest ManagementAll states in Malaysia are committed to forest conservation including the mangrove forests except those without substantial areas such as Kelantan, Melaka, Perlis and Pulau Pinang.
While the rate of exploitation is higher in the states of Peninsular Malaysia, Sabah and Sarawak are beginning to demonstrate the value of both conservation and utilization of mangroves for their states' revenue in the near future. These commitments are illustrated by Shaharuddin et al. It is presumed in the next decade that both the states of Sabah and Sarawak will embark on mangrove exploitation to give added value to their mangrove forests, in addition to more serious efforts in conservation.
Sustainable mangrove forestry in Malaysia may prove as the way forward in ensuring a balance between exploitation and conservation by all states.
The need for more studies and research to develop more products has also been discussed Ibrahim and Husin ;Ong ; Latiff Minimising Impacts and Promoting Wise Use of ResourcesThe keys to conservation are to protect the mangrove resources in situ and when the need to utilize the resources for economic purposes arises steps must be taken to minimize the impacts to the ecosystem.
As the mangrove ecosystem is very fragile any form of disturbances no matter how small could possibly create long-lasting impacts. As stated by Kugan the harvesting of mangroves for woodchips in Sabah had critically damaged the mangrove vegetation so that the production was stopped by the state government after about 30 years of exploitation.
The Environmental Impact Assessment regulation in Malaysia is already in place for land conversion and other prescribed activities. Enhancing Biodiversity ManagementThe existence of a unique ecosystem diversity, rich species diversity, flora and fauna is well documented in the mangrove ecosystem.
The mangroves of Malaysia are rich both in terms of flora and fauna Aldrie and Latiff Some of the species have been exploited and utilized while some hold potential for the future economic benefits of the communities concerned. Once again the key is mangrove forest conservation to ensure the conservation of species and subsequent use of their genetic diversity.
There is an urgent need though to strengthen both the institutional and research capacity to address this important issue. The Department of Forestry in all states is committed to conserve mangroves in their respective states, hence the capacity for research must be further strengthened. Strengthening Mangrove Virgin Jungle ReserveThe Virgin Jungle Reserves VJR within the permanent forest reserves are established for the purpose of stock holdings of important habitats and species of forestry important for future silviculture, education and research.
Strengthening the present VJRs would certainly ensure mangrove forest conservation in the country. The state of Terengganu in particular should be commended for establishing five new VJRs in the Kuala Kemaman Forest Reserves and the state of Perak for well-managed mangroves at Matang.
Enhancing Public AwarenessThe public is the ultimate benefactor of mangrove conservation; hence to enhance public awareness on the importance of this ecosystem is the most important assurance for future generations. A step has been taken by the Malaysian Nature Society in establishing a mangrove Nature Study Centre supported by a private company in Terengganu.
School children and university students are taken to the centre to do nature studies on the ecology of the mangrove flora and fauna. The local community in Setiu, Terengganu, with the assistance from WWF Malaysia and the Universiti Malaysia Terengganu, has also shown similar commitment by embarking on mangrove replanting. In fact, the tsunami had created the impetus in creating public awareness on the importance of the mangroves. Many states had embarked on mangrove tree planting in the last five years, some with great success and some with minor failures.
Functions of MangrovesAs sinks for waste-water borne pollutants It has been shown that mangrove soils and roots could trap and immobilize heavy metals and nutrients from waste water originating from the hinterland.
Hence it is believed that mangroves could function as a purifier of pollutants Conley et al. This function has been taken for granted such that many inland factories and industries pollute the upstreams and pollutants flow downstream through the mangroves to the sea.
As a sediment removal system As water flows slower in streams and rivers of mangrove areas than that of nonmangrove rivers, sediments tend to settle down to the bottom and that which flows outwards towards the sea is sediment-free Wolanski As observed in Matang, Perak much of the muddy substratum had become sandy and this affected the cockle production which ultimately brought adverse implications to the cockle farming. Coastal erosion preventionThe strong roots and buttress systems of the mangrove plants form a natural buffer between the land and sea.
They also tend to break strong wind and wave actions. This had been proven in when a tsunami struck the coasts of the Langkawi Islands, Kedah and Perak. If not for this buffer effect much more damage to the estuaries and rivers would have occurred. In addition, mangroves also contribute to land-building through accretion Othman Recreational areasToday mangrove areas are capable of generating some economic returns through boating, bird watching, jungle trekking, and other recreational activities.
Kampung Kuantan and Kampung Belimbing in Kuala Selangor are known to attract eco-tourists as fireflies synchronizing light emitting become the attraction at night.
In Lumut, Perak some recreational facilities have been constructed and developed to attract local visitors and tourists. EducationAs mangrove forests contain salt-tolerant plants and animals, they could play an important role in educating the public, especially school children on ecology. An excellent example is the Kuala Selangor Nature Park that has conducted many education programmes for the school children and the public at large by the Malaysian Nature Society.
The area is about 95 ha and a total of species of birds and 13 species of plants are present in the park. Development of a Management PlanMangrove swamp forests are always under serious threats of various forms notably from conversion to other land-uses especially aquaculture and agriculture.
The state of Kedah including Pulau Langkawi is no exception. About 1, ha of the Sungai Merbok mangrove area had been converted to rice fields but those areas remained idle because of the acid sulphate soils that don't favour successful rice farming. The problem lies in the difficulty in recognizing the indirect and direct benefits of the mangrove swamp forests.
Since the mangrove ecosystem is an interphase between terrestrial and marine environments, there exists competition for various economic interests. Major industries in sectors such as forestry, fisheries and agriculture could claim mangroves as their administrative domain, and the policy that is best for one is detrimental for another.
This is observed as happening in many states such as Perak and Selangor. Hence, trade-offs between alternative development and resource use must be examined more carefully and comprehensively. Current economic analysis can assist to identify the problem of using the cost-benefit approach to solve problems associated with a decision on coastal resource use, such as mangroves.
Matang Mangrove ForestThe Matang mangrove forest is taken here as a model for sustainable management because not only is it always claimed to be the best managed mangrove forest in Malaysia and probably also in the world but also it has a long history of management, as a first working plan was drawn in Gan This is supported by Muda et al.
Hamdan et al. The policy and the role of various legislation in the country is quite clear but yet as shown by Haliza et al. National Forest Act and the various master plans at the local government level. Just like any other forest types, mangrove forests are also subjected to sustainable forest management and the states that adopted this are Perak, Johor, Selangor and Kedah where mangrove forests are very extensive.
The objectives of sustainable management are to produce fuelwood, charcoal and poles, to protect the riverine and coastline ecosystems and to practice conservation Ong Research and Development Mangrove EcotourismThe initiative taken in Langkawi island and Kota Marudu, Sabah by the various authorities and stake-holders in promoting sustainable mangrove ecotourism is very commendable and it should be a model for other protected areas.
Visitors and tourists were taken by boats to not only observe the beauty of mangrove vegetation, flora and fauna but also the activities of the local communities in small-scale exploitation of mangrove resources. These activities are both educational for the visitors and tourists and profit making for the local communities. ChallengesAmong the present and future challenges are: a To conserve adequate areas of riverine and coastal zones covering all forest types for the appropriate species.
Of particular significance is the conservation of the nipah areas which are mostly outside the forest reserves. The species has been acclaimed as one of the important multi-purpose ones but conservation is not in sight, though exploitation has been minimal.
There have been surveys and discussion on the possibility of converting the nipah sugar to biofuel. The disaster of the tsunami of has probably taught us some important lessons of what the mangroves could do to protect the estuarine areas in particular. Likewise there are also many coastal areas which have been eroded by sea. The states of Perak, Johor, Sabah and Sarawak have updated their management plans to suit possible change in policy of exploitation and management.
Both the local and state governments must adhere to the existing laws and regulations to ensure that land conversion issues are addressed in an appropriate manner in the future. Management StrategiesThe management strategies employed amongst others are: a To maintain and propagate the most productive forest subtypes, e. Rhizophora forest. Surveys as conducted by the Forestry Department Terengganu Mohd.
Lokman and Sulong are excellent examples to recognize the mangrove types and subtypes by zones. This classification would help the various state governments to manage their resources efficiently. Where the existing mangrove types have suffered damage efforts should be taken to undertake rehabilitation and restoration of mangrove belts. Xylocarpus species. In the past no efforts have been taken to improve the quality of mangrove species either by genetic selection or propagation. As stated above all inland mangroves in statelands, especially the nipah belt, should be conserved.
Where evidence is shown that there has been depletion or loss of certain animal species efforts should be taken to enrich the population. To achieve the above strategies, all parties especially the Forestry Departments of all states, non-government organisations, schools, universities, research institutes and other stake-holders must agree to prioritise conservation and maintain sustainable timber production through management zoning, felling rotation, and best silvicultural practices.
Understanding the ecology and biogeography of the mangroves are the key to successful management Hamilton and Snedaker IntroductionMangrove trees are a major component of a mangrove ecosystem. According to Duke , mangrove has been defined as a "community of trees, shrubs, palms or ground ferns, generally exceeding more than half a meter in height, and which normally grows above mean sea level in the intertidal zones of marine coastal environments, or estuarine margins. Mangrove Forest in MalaysiaAccording to Japar Sidik , a mangrove forest developed best in Malaysia where the highest number of species occur and is favoured by a humid tropical climate and high rainfall, which are usually accompanied by silt-laden rivers forming suitable mudflats.
These mangrove forests are also found to develop further inland, up to where the tidal influence of the sea can be felt in the rivers or streams. The Malaysian mangrove is the third largest mangrove forest in the Asia-Pacific region after Indonesia and Thailand.
It could be found mainly in the states of Perak, Kedah and Johor. Smaller mangrove areas are found in Kelantan, Terengganu and Pahang. In Sarawak, mangroves are found along the coastlines and estuaries of the Sarawak River, the Rajang Delta and the Trusan River and in Sabah they are found in the eastern and northern coastal areas of the state Table 1.
In the case of Peninsular Malaysia, mangrove forests are well developed in the west due to relatively sheltered coasts. The seas of the west coast are calmer due to the protection accorded by Sumatera and bordered by the Strait of Malacca that has a limited wind fetch, whereas the east coast is exposed to the South China Sea that has larger and more energetic waves Aldrie Mangrove forest developments are inhibited by strong currents and wave action, especially due to the monsoon season Gong et al.
Lokman and Yaakob There are small patches of mangrove area on the east coast of Peninsular Malaysia and they are confined to river mouths in the states of Pahang, Terengganu and Kelantan. However most of these mangrove reserves are situated in Pahang, with 11 locations, compared to three locations in Terengganu, and no mangrove forest is set aside as a reserve in Kelantan Japar Sidik In Peninsular Malaysia, the total extent of mangrove forest reserve in was estimated to be about , ha.
When compared to the total forest area of about 4,, ha and total land area of about 13,, ha, mangrove forests amount to only 2. The largest mangrove forest in Peninsular Malaysia is the Matang Mangrove covering about 41, ha , which has been managed for charcoal, firewood and poles by the Forestry Department since Studies on forest composition are very important as a part of the present environmental impact assessment and, more importantly, for management of natural resources, especially for monitoring changes in ecosystem quality.
Norhayati , who studied the biomass and species composition in 1 ha stand of mangrove forest in Kisap Forest Reserve, Langkawi, recorded a total of trees comprising nine mangrove tree species from four families. The dominant species is Rhizophora apiculata The most dominant species was R. The result showed that the dominant species is Rhizophora mucronata Research on the conservation value of mangrove has been carried out by Ashton and Macintosh at Semantan mangrove forest, Sarawak.
They found that the uniqueness in the Semantan mangrove is related to the large strand of mature X. The album is entitled Floresta , or "Forest" in Portuguese. This is saxophonist Turrentine's sixth album. Layered strings, piano, bass, noise and voices are mysteriously woven and expand as two magnificently parallel aesthetic worlds.
This compilation connects the transit lines between these varied musical offerings and tells the secret story of eleven forgotten Bay Area bands. The eleven song package, which includes Zappaclassics such as "Don't Eat The Yellow Snow" his first charted single and "Cosmic Debris," featured an all-star recording band interpreting the maestro's exotic compositions and their topical yet comical lyrics.
We Are Diva! At times it's as heavy as lead, crushing and lurching hard, while other times it's melodic and hook-laden; usually you'll find this contrast within the same song.
Vinyl version due October 7. This second album of Anatolian psychedelia, originally released in , showed defiance even in its gatefold art, with a drawing of the band members seeming to grow straight out the ground, covered in plant tendrils.
Akbayram poached members of Mogollar and Baris Manco's Kurtalan Ekspres to get the best fuzz breaks and Hammond slams and put 'em straight in your ears. The band also tried out some mixes that pushed the vocals or a particular instrument way up front, and of course long, low, reverberant welcomes from Edip's echo-covered voice. While the music can be unyielding and is always meticulously arranged, words are strung together to create sensual images rather than formal narratives.
Though electronics are still a primary force, much of the new album finds the trio exploring its interest in chamber pop and folk.
Richard D. James has been releasing music since the beginning of the '90s. Syro is the first new Aphex Twin album since 's Drukqs. Ball's voice can break your heart with a ballad or break your back with a rocker.
Deluxe adds three bonus tracks. They are America's Technicolor cowboys; brothers-in-arms in service to the creed that great music has no boundaries. Individually, John and Big Kenny are first-rate musicians, songwriters, producers, and entertainers. The result is a record with more of an experimental edge than previous Bonamassa records. It's a blues record that explores the outer reaches and the many different sounds that shape the genre.
His first solo record on Drag City in nearly three years, it is a rich and roiling time of life that is captured in a myriad of moments throughout all the songs here. Throughout the album, mythos is in the wind, trysting with truth and the joys of song, of singing and playing in open space; harmonies and acoustic instruments spread in bright stereo sound, accosting in the air between the speakers and going deep, without hesitation into our waiting and needing minds and souls.
Limited copies on vinyl include a bonus 12". It s a rich survey of David Bowie's many musical lives offering a generous helping of hits, an intriguing dip into archives, classic album tracks and long lost B-sides, explosive live recordings, soundtrack recordings and remixes.
The album follows the ambient and haunting sounds of Burzum's most recent releases. Inspired by Varg's extensive knowledge of European history, the album continues his explorative sound and lyrical works. He says, "It is my first step towards something new, which at the same time is as old as the roots of Europe.
I try to transport the listener to the days of yore, to make them feel the past that is still alive in their own blood. A punk band that can play and style of music, they take pride in their versatility. Originally coming out of Buenos Aires's famed digital cumbia scene, Chancha has notoriously broken way outside those boundaries to forge unprecedented mergers between Brazilian rhythms, Paraguayan harp, Andean mysticism and the solitude of Argentinian folklore - all processed through his own futuristic style of post-dubstep.
Battles is comprised of equal parts hooks and heart. Austin native Gary Clark Jr. He must be succeeding, as Spin says, "there truly is nobody else like him around.
On his birthday, the poetic rock eminence will follow up his quiet stunner Old Ideas with a new album called Popular Problems. Cohen produced and co-wrote the LP with the frequent Madonna collaborator Patrick Leonard, who also worked on Old Ideas , and the LP pulls the same trick that Cohen has pulled on his last few albums, pairing up his grave and gravelly voice with weirdly chintzy synth settings" -- Stereogum. Vinyl due October 7.
Offering incorporates a look that is contiguous with the graphic identity of Impulse! Records, Coltrane's exclusive label from until the end of his life. This is the first officially sanctioned release of an undiscovered, complete Coltrane performance since Dedicated to experimentation and pushing the music forward, the avant crew worked with electronics, MIDI networks, string and synth bongos, and yes, the over-the-stratosphere guitar heroics and vocals from Hagerty.
Enthused by Purple's arrival in town, the local press dubbed the concert "das Rockereignis des Jahres [the rock event of the year]. Human Voice , his seventh full-length as Dntel, is an eight-track LP of sun-drenched, deconstructed pop that follows 's Aimlessness. The title is a nod to the ability of machines to communicate meanings and messages in much the same way as the human voice.
Limited copies feature a bonus cassette, Human Voice Outtakes , which includes a recording of Dntel's live set from the Leaving Records-curated edition of Boiler Room in L. But, on the other end, the band focuses on writing pop songs so snappy and sweet it sounds like they just walked out of the sock hop with Frankie Valli. The guitars are rich and atmospheric, the rhythms subtle and fluid yet more powerful at the same time.
Throughout the album, singer Sean Van Vleet's raw croon rises to match the band's musicality, conveying anxieties, secrets, and a heartfelt longing for transcendence. The theme of transformation and new beginnings is captured in the album s title, a literal spiritual term meaning the transformation of negative energy into positive energy, freedom and forgiveness. Goat's hypnotic, debut, World Music , received widespread acclaim and placed in many of that year's top-ten lists.
Yet despite the apparent lack of new ideas here, the undeniable success of this work lies in Goat's deepening and development of the musical and spiritual themes presented on in World Music. With lush textures and vocal hooks that deftly weaves complex emotional themes throughout, Croome's gorgeous pop songcraft has already featured on popular television shows, including So You Think You Can Dance , American Horror Story , Nashville , Gossip Girl and Graceland.
Sunburned and salty, that term perfectly describes their distinctive melding of reverb heavy surf guitar and Bakersfield-style honky tonk with '80s post-punk. During this same period, Herbie recorded seven albums for Columbia that were released only in Japan.
A soundtrack to an art film called Wonderwall , this predominantly Indian music collection was the first solo album to be released by a Beatle and also the first album on the newly formed Apple Records. The Apple Years box brings all these eclectic albums together in one set that mirrors 's Dark Horse Years box set and contains a perfect bound book with a DVD. A genuinely personal and time-less pop album that will, softly, knock you all…even if you don't understand a word of Swedish.
First edition on vinyl pressed on translucent purple wax. All told, the album's cast-list runs to some 27 players. Features guest appearance by Rick Ross on "Options. Deluxe edition includes three bonus tracks. In , she decided to settle down in the French capital in order to study fine art, where she became involved with the underground electro-pop music scene.
Karaca reworked traditional folk lyrics with molten electric bass lines that played up both a poet's broiling righteousness and also his listeners' common ground with their elders in Turkey's history.
Kravitz has transcended genre, style, race and class in a year music career, one that revels in the rich influences of '60s and '70s soul, rock and funk. First edition vinyl pressed on white wax. Lewis played the music that he wanted to record and made every song into a unique expression of his wild, eclectic soul.
When Lights first hit the music scene in , she was just a songwriter with a synth and a dream. Her name may have been pluralized but Lights Poxleitner was a one-woman show who played and programmed her own instruments and sang her own lyrics. Suitable comparisons to this music are as disparate as early Cat Power, Arab Strap, the Shrimper roster ca. A theremin layered over acoustic guitar gives way to a few seconds of synthesizer before swinging into funk and big beat in 'Things You Don't Know About.
Every influence on display is well-studied and deployed effectively, and over it all dances Mapei's accessible, soaring voice, propelled by genuine charisma and heart. The album, which was produced by Ndegeocello and Blue Note Records president Don Was, is the ninth in a formidable catalog that Moran has been building on Blue Note since Mr Twin Sister is a minute tribute to the way night allows people to discover who they are and who they want to be.
Three massive tracks of epic, droning, doom, thundering riffs, and plodding cacophony. For fans of Sunn O and Isis. Anchored by tribal drums and electric guitars, Neulore's songs are better suited for the arena than the campfire. The music swells and swoons, with tense verses that break into epic, open-armed choruses. It's a sound that tells a story, much like classic folk music The EP includes a surprise featured guest, as well as a song performed entirely in French.
Sparse, gorgeous and with Hadreas quavering vocals often only accompanied by piano, they were uncommonly beautiful tales of a life lived on the dark side scarred, brutalized, yet ultimately, slowly but surely reclaimed. It's all about a path forward, about looking around and imagining where we'll be in 20 years if we just follow that path. And of course, you'll find a persistent anxiety throughout; we live, after all, in anxious times.
As John Murry told me after a first listen, 'It brings a tear to the eye and blood to the johnson. It's got it's own groove with in your face guitars that snake and harmonize. They jangle too, thanks in no small part to special guest Peter Buck. The band's albums have thus far only been available outside of North America, and have now slipped out of print. Replete with handclaps, pounding pianos, tambourines and vocal effects, but steeped in guitar roar, Purling Hiss streamlines up nicely, serving the new songs and directions of Weirdon while still slamming down hard on your ears like they like to do.
As he was setting up Ghetto's guitar amp combo and pulling gadgets off the shelves and microphones out of boxes he said to her, "This is how you make a Van Halen record. Ghetto's expressive whisper-sing outlines the aftermath of a failed relationship with radical vulnerability in lyrics that use achingly personal details to create universally cathartic songs. At the core of its broken heart, Cool Choices is a pop album. Ghetto tenderly walks us through a tried-and-true topic—lost love—in a way that feels genuinely fresh and revelatory.
With Stereolab now finished it is hard to get that updated '60s French pop vibe from anywhere else. Her solo work has continued the effort meeting a small niche in the music world. Besides her voice which continues to be rather affecting she has appeared in increasingly unusual places ending up on a Tyler the Creator track, etc. Hopefully at some point she begins to grow her audience.
It was recorded at the famed Largo in Los Angeles. A major break came in when Columbia Records took them on, debuting with Slip Away -- and two superb albums.
Both albums, in part, were initially released on Destiny Records and contained a subsequent CBS album with some new material. Single-disc remastered edition also available. Double-vinyl version due October 7. Bringing together Ra highlights from over 25 years of music, the album is the first internationally released compilation to provide an introduction to the music of Sun Ra, curated personally by the Arkestra and mastered from the original tapes.
Sukierae features 20 new songs penned by Jeff, performed by Tweedy father and son along with a host of musical guests. His sound embodies the nature of solitary travel and the inevitable connections made from a life on the road. He seems to take notes from the Ramblin' Jack Eliot handbook.
A bit of a maverick, he's also not afraid of the odd, straight job painting signs or slingin' beer. He is part John Prine and a bit of Mark Twain.
Inevitably, the tracklist kicks off with the label's chief protagonist of melancholy, Burial. The result is a collection of tunes the labels says is "free of drums and often basslines, leaving only synthesised, sampled or looped textures that often hang like a cloud of gas, or rotate without friction like mini cyclones.
More than any Whirr release to date, Sway creates a definitive sense of immersion, sculpting an environment that breathes you in instantly and breathes you out only when the record snaps into silence. The eleven songs find a finely honed, battle-worn lineup collectively exploring the wide-open soundscapes that one belonged to Nelson alone.
He would become one of a handful of musicians who helped create bluegrass music. The notebook songs, with lyrics written in his mother's handwriting from the radio in the 's, are folk songs, with roots in the British Isles. The concert was recorded at the Tsongas Arena in Lowell, Massachusetts and featured a brand new stage set by legendary designer and Yes collaborator Roger Dean. The setlist features tracks from across the band's career, including an extensive acoustic section in the middle of the show and some tracks that have rarely been performed live.
Also available on stand-alone DVD and Blu-ray. It is an exhilarating mix of The Stranglers and The Waterboys with the energy of the Pogues and will probably get matched to those who are fans of Frank Turner. Inspired by this subject matter, Sting has written more than 40 original songs for the project, some of which will be included in a stage play of the same name. The defining songs featured on the album The Last Ship explore a myriad of universal themes including the complexity of relationships, the passage of time, transgressions, and redemption.
Disc One contains the whole of the concert from the Tsongas Arena in Lowell, Massachusetts, previously spread across two discs. Disc Two contains 70 minutes of highlights from a very different concert on the same tour filmed at Estival in Lugano, Switzerland.
Also available on stand-alone CD. The vinyl includes a previously unreleased bonus track, "Lethe," and a digital download. Urgent, aggressive, and remarkable cathartic, Let The Ocean Take Me pushes the band's signature post-hardcore approach to new heights of richness and diversity, providing the consummate aural partner to vocalist Joel Birch's increasingly more potent lyricism.
HQgm with D-side etching. The title-track is a lysergic rush, a kaleidoscopic bite of psychedelic anglophile pop. Alexis Georgopoulos' voice finds a comfortable spot between the narcotic resplendence of George Harrison and the delicacy of Broadcast's Trish Keenan. The music, meanwhile, opens swathed in phased guitars before building into a prismatic, melodic fuzzed out mass.
Harmonious conflict rolls through mastermind Anthony Ferraro's uniquely soulful compositions with a struggling duality innate in each note. A classically trained pianist with French composer Hector Berlioz tattooed on his arm, Ferraro approaches his songwriting with both a disregard for his 15 years of focused lessons and a respect for the skill those studies have afforded him.
The lonesome, mournful void of a strummed acoustic guitar is soon enough smothered by drones and swarms of feedback that intertwine with pulsating, yowling electronics. Two worlds that both harmonize and struggle against each other.
It made an instant hero of Winston Rodney, and the album remains a cornerstone of the entire roots movement. Color vinyl. Cliffs is getting it done" - Columbus Alive. Some watery, jangling tones that are inevitably overtaken by scorching fuzz. Having taken time to carefully hone their style of the music they love, Empress AD have written an arsenal of songs that veer from an expansive, progressive sound to an aggressive, controlled roar.
The sound is sophisticated, groovy and melodically memorable; mixing Latin rhythms - in a continuous sexual tension with the exotic images of the beautiful Laura Gemser - and electronic textures that show the influence of early techno masters such as Giorgio Moroder and Kraftwerk.
After a short while, however, he was as hooked on the Elmore James influenced British Blues that he left John Mayall to take a risk on a group of unknowns. The rest is history. The album is a fulsome combination of funk, electric jazz, and soul, with Latin roots. Often compared to bands such as The Ramones and Buzzcocks, their brand of music combines a punchy and flawless rhythm section with catchy guitar lines and vocal harmonies. Grandma's Boyfriend have been playing together since , cycling through more guitarists than The Red Hot Chili Peppers.
Their half of the record combines punk and powerpop with Beach Boys-esque vocal harmonies to create songs about love and squalor that even your mother would love. Trust Fund bring all kinds of Flying Nun-ish mid-fi guitar pop with hints of bands like Swearin', Sourpatch, and Big Soda seeping through. Mastered and louder than ever the tune is part of this four-track EP that also features a hard-style re-edit from "Gammer," and two completely new tracks that showcase the producer's great versatility.
His output as Ital is murky, spaced-out, exploratory techno. Still, the Brooklyn-based producer remains ambivalent about dance floor functionality, and once enthused to Anthem Magazine about creating music mastered for intimate home-listening, not, as he put it, 'UK clubs. It inhabits the place between consciousness and unconsciousness, a dream like space, somewhere unreal.
Written and recorded by Sacha on his laptop, the album reaches beyond the traditional guitar, bass, drum template and blends in instruments from around the world. Serious endless hesher jams. Blue vinyl. Julius McMichael lead , Ben Frazier first tenor , Donald Travis second tenor , Ricky Jackson baritone , and Al Brown bass had a distinctive sound with McMichael's high tenor voice as the lead, very much defining this distinctly New York-centered doo wop sound.
Social Rust , PC Worship's fourth LP to date and Northern Spy Records debut, may very well be the closest this innovative quartet, led by multi-instrumentalist Justin Frye, has gotten to the conventional rock formula. But don't be alarmed—PC Worship has, by no means, abandoned its inherent avant-gardist roots. In fact, Social Rust portends a familial group hell bent on blending its own vision of fully realized songcraft and contagious melodicism into its trademark chaotic din.
Comes with lyric insert and replica vintage press release. Plastic Cloud recorded, quite simply, one of the greatest underground psychedelic albums ever made: a swirl of gossamer vocals and Tolkien references, swathed in the some of the most relentless fuzz guitar you will ever hear. The Toronto-based rock quartet is perhaps the most truly democratic group in the annals of pop, with Jay Ferguson, Chris Murphy, Patrick Pentland, and Andrew Scott all contributing original compositions to each record, equal partners with equal say over every aspect of their work.
Where in the past creative lines have been blurred to create the multi-faceted Sloan sound, Commonwealth sees the four bandmates disassociating ever so slightly to create an old-school double album sequenced with each member staking out a single side as their own artistic dominion. So Cow are of the mind that they sound like The Chills or McLusky, but they've lost all perspective at this stage so don't go taking their word for it.
Similarly, lyrics telling of joyriding local politicians, John Deacon's post-Queen level of contentment, and the terror of turning 30 can probably now be interpreted any number of ways.
This was not, by any stretch of the imagination, either pop-reggae or lovers rock. Nor was it the kind of dreamy Rasta reggae or art-for-art's sake dub that was popular at the time. Though the subtly jazzy swing that would later become explicit was already informing Steel Pulse's groove, the band's first album seemed not at all interested in generating anything like a party atmosphere. Handsworth Revolution is about politics first and religion second, with a quick nod to the dance 'Sound System' and another to the herb 'Macka Splaff' and not a single love lyric to be found anywhere.
Written and produced between Florida and Louisiana during the summer and fall of , the album recalls those southern US landscapes and Prudhomme's experiences across eight songs equally intimate, intoxicating and mercurial. Not that there weren't a few predecessors, most obviously John Lennon's Plastic Ono Band album -- which was also, not coincidentally, inspired by the work of primal scream pioneer Arthur Janov. Third World was looking to sell records worldwide and not just in Jamaica and England, and while the band's fusion of these genres may have infuriated the die-hard Rasta man, it helped the music reach a larger base.
After the opening 'One Cold Vibe,' a melodic reggae bouncer, a tepid 'Cold Sweat' not the James Brown tune has floating rhythms that soften the harsh lyrics.
Moreno Veloso, son of Brazilian music icon Caetano Veloso, began singing at the age of three, improving his natural skills while learning how to play classical guitar six years later. Moreno Veloso became a Latin percussionist while still a teenager, touring with his father and Gilberto Gil before playing cello for Carlinhos Brown. For those unfamiliar with Document And Eyewitness , it really doesn't do the album justice to describe it simply as a collection of live recordings from three turn-of-the-'80s Wire gigs.
What makes it more than that is the unorthodox nature of the main performance and the way it was presented on record. The centerpiece of the original vinyl release was a recording of the final gig of Wire's '70s phase albeit one that took place in February This was a concert at the Electric Ballroom that grew out of the band's performance art-based residency at the Jeannetta Cochrane Theatre the previous November.
Is A Muggin (Rap) - Joni Mitchell - Mingus (CD, Album), Ill Never Find Another (Find Another Like You) - The Manhattans* - Kiss And Say Goodbye: The Best Of, Rim Jhim Ki Barsat Hai, Tell The Truth - Pat Brown - A Womans Thang (Cassette, Album), III. Dialogue Du Vent Et De La Mer - Debussy* - Debussy (CD), Auf Schreckenstein Gibts Täglich Spass - Oliver Hassencamp - Schreckenstein (4) Auf Schreckenstein, Лабиринты Тайн Тьмы - Варххорн = Varhhorn* - Лабиринты Тьмы = Labyrinths of Darkness (CD, Album), Dont Stop - Various - Sunshine Live Classics Vol. 2 (CD), Solar Tribes - The Muses Rapt - The Eleusinian Mysteries (File, Album), Bad Start 2 (Promo Set Remix) - Mr. Gaus - CELL Part II. Extraction (File, MP3), Prologue - Alex North - The Rainmaker (Vinyl, LP, Album), Bill Ramsey & Paul Kuhn - Ballads And Blues - Songs From Home (CD), Only Happy When It Rains - Various - 1 (One) Vol.2 (CD), On A Snowy Christmas Night - Elvis Presley - Merry Christmas From Elvis (Cassette) Ожидание за пределами истины - Пыль - Другая Жизнь (CDr, Album)