Witness the emergence of a beautiful young anthropology student at the University of Chicago, Katherine Dunham, whose life-changing field trip to the Caribbean was inspired by scholar Melville Herskovits and funded by a grant from the Rosenwald Foundation.
See footage shot by Dunham in , during her research trip to Jamaica, Trinidad, Martinique, and Haiti. Hear Dunham now 91 tell how she came to be initiated into Haiti's Vodoun religion and what prompted her to transfer the results of her research to the concert stage.
Within a year of her return to Chicago, Dunham was invited to perform the "Yanvalou," a ritual dance she learned in Haiti, at an historic event in New York called the "Negro Dance Evening. Katherine Dunham's year in the Caribbean, during the s was both an anthropological field trip and a journey in search of her own roots. She experienced dance that was a powerful echo of African culture and an integral part of spiritual and secular life. After completing her master's thesis, "The Dances of Haiti," Dunham turned to the concert stage -- a bold move at a time when black dancers were confined to roles as sensual exotica in cabaret chorus lines or comic relief in minstrel shows and vaudeville.
To accomplish her mission, Dunham had to mold dancers who could perform what she called "the steps of the Gods.
Showcased in "L'Ag'Ya," a piece based on dances she studied in Martinique, and in a class taught by former Dunham dancer Walter Nicks, it is also visible in Dunham's performance in the motion picture version of the Broadway musical on which she collaborated with New York City Ballet's George Balanchine, "Cabin in the Sky.
Although maintaining her company and school was a constant struggle, she nonetheless blazed a trail that others would soon follow. And, like Dunham's Caribbean visit, her year-and-a-half study of African dance would have a profound impact.
After her field trip to West Africa, Primus' performance of "Fanga," the West African dance of welcome, marked a new direction that would inspire others, like DanceAfrica's Chuck Davis, to bring to the concert stage the power and glory of their African heritage. Following in Dunham's and Primus' footsteps in the late s and early s, Talley Beatty and Donald McKayle emerged in a post-World War II America swirling with activity that signaled a social and political change that would profoundly affect America and African Americans.
None would more clearly define that place as being squarely center stage as Alvin Ailey. Emerging from the star-studded cast of the Broadway musical "House of Flowers," which he and Carmen de Lavallade had traveled from California to join, Ailey would pull together a group of dancers for what was meant to be a one-night performance at the city's modern dance showcase, the 92nd Street YMHA. That night would change his life and alter the face of American modern dance, while also providing an answer to the perennial question, "What shall the Negro dance about?
There is a character in the story named Hiraku Makimura, which is an anagram of "Haruki Murakami". The novel's Makimura is also a best-selling author and writer. The supernatural character known as the Sheep Man speaks differently between the two versions. The character speaks normal Japanese in the original work, but in the English translations, his speech is written without any spaces between words. Written Japanese does not typically demarcate words with spaces.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Dance Dance Dance First edition Japanese. Dewey Decimal. Haruki Murakami and the Music of Words. Vintage, The term has then been reused when hip hop emerged in the late s, designating the harder part of the hip hop, with the same characteristics: a harder sound, engaged lyrics and a whole way of life dedicated to the respect of the values shown by rappers like KRS-One or Public Enemy. Music journalist Simon Reynolds has written books on hardcore techno, covering bands like L.
Style and Human Resource. In the early s, the terms "hardcore" and " darkcore " were also used to designate some primitive forms of breakbeat and drum and bass which were very popular in England and from which have emerged several famous producers like the Prodigy , Lords of Acid and also Goldie. It introduced sped up hip-hop breakbeats, piano breaks, dub and low frequency basslines and cartoon-like noises, which has been retrospectively called 'old skool' hardcore , and is widely regarded as the progenitor of happy hardcore which later lost the breakbeats and jungle which alternatively lost the techno style keyboard stabs and piano breaks.
Around , the style became clearly defined and was simply named "hardcore", as it left its influences from Detroit techno. The official birth of hardcore is supposedly   known from the release of the track "We Have Arrived" by the German producer Mescalinum United, of Frankfurt.
His group PCP popularized a slow, heavy, minimal and very dark form of hardcore that is now designated as "darkcore" or " doomcore ".
In the United States , the New York pioneer of techno Lenny Dee launched the label Industrial Strength Records in  that has federated a large part of the American scene, making New York one of the biggest centers of early American hardcore.
Other American producers on the label included Deadly Buda and the Horrorist , but the label has also produced producers from other nationalities. At the same time in Rotterdam , the DJs and producers Paul Elstak  and Rob Fabrie popularized a speedier style, with saturated bass-lines, quickly known as " gabber ", and its more commercial and accessible form, happy hardcore. Paul Elstak founded Rotterdam Records in , which became the first hardcore label in the Netherlands.
Launched in , the concept of Thunderdome quickly popularized hardcore music in Europe with a catalogue of CD compilations and events, attracting thousands of young people that launched the gabber movement. Just during the single year of , four compilations were released with increasing success. The same year, the label Mokum Records was created  by Freddy B who had success with artists and groups like Technohead     Tellurian, the Speedfreak, Scott Brown ,  and the Belgian musician Liza N'Eliaz,  pioneer of speedcore.
In England , the members of the sound system Spiral Tribe ,  including Stormcore, 69db, Crystal Distortion and Curley hardened their acid-breakbeat sound, becoming the pioneers of the "acidcore" and " hardtechno " genres. In , they founded the label Network 23 which among others has produced Somatic Responses, Caustic Visions and Unit Moebius, establishing the musical and visual basis of the free party rave.
In the late s, hardcore progressively changed as gabber waned in popularity. Under the influence of Hardstyle and industrial hardcore , a new scene was developing featuring DJ Promo and his label The Third Movement. This scene now known as mainstream hardcore emerged in the early s with a modern, mature, slower, and sophisticated form. Happy hardcore continues its movement underground and has evolved bringing out other related genres such as eurobeat , UK hardcore , Freeform hardcore and Full-on Hardcore.
As the free party movement was successful in all the Europe, freetekno appeared. The Logical Song ". Nightcore artists started appearing on services such as LimeWire in mid, and YouTube in The early s saw the rise of hardcore internationally, with artists such as Angerfist gaining popularity quickly.
The hardcore scene thrived during this period with many new producers and labels making their mark on the scene, both in Europe and the rest of the world, appearing even at North America's biggest music festival, Electric Daisy Carnival. The middle of the decade saw a shift in popularity, from mainstream hardcore to faster styles such as frenchcore , uptempo hardcore and terrorcore.
Although these styles existed previously already, an increase in artists and events around helped these styles develop and move to the forefront of the audience's attention. Peacock saw a quick rise within the scene and influenced the musical direction to a louder, faster, but more melodic and euphoric style.
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